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‘A Low Dishonest Decade’?: War and Peace in the 1930s  

Anthony Adamthwaite

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
This analysis of the origins of the Second World War in Europe challenges several key ideas of the historiography: the ‘thirty years war’ thesis, the notion of a European civil war, and ... More

‘America’ and Europe, 1914–1945  

D. W. Ellwood

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2014
The First World War cost Europe the leadership of the world. But the United States of Woodrow Wilson was not ready to take its place. The 1920s brought Europe to a crossroads where mass ... More

Axis Imperialism in the Second World War  

Shelley Baranowski

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
Common characteristics and objectives united the Axis alliance, composed of Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, and imperial Japan. All three were ‘latecomers’ to the great power rivalries of the ... More

Belle Époque: Europe before 1914  

Alan Sked

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2014
Did Europe’s ‘age of catastrophe’ (1914–1945) represent a break with the past or did it amplify the tensions of the preceding era? Was it a ‘parenthesis’ or a ‘revelation’? Historians have ... More

Bolshevism Debated, 1921–1932  

Anne E. Gorsuch

Online publication date:
Jan 2015
Focusing on the transnational flow and exchange of ideas, rather than on divisions and borders, this chapter emphasizes the ways in which early debates about ‘Sovietness’ related to ... More

Bolshevism enforced, 1917–1921  

Erik Landis

Online publication date:
Dec 2013
How could the Bolsheviks exert control over Russia between October 1917 and 1921 when the Provisional Government had failed to do so after the February Revolution? This chapter reassesses ... More

Business and Industry  

Philip Ollerenshaw

Print publication date:
Mar 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This chapter examines the evolution of business and industry in Ireland since the eighteenth century. Manufacturing industry, together with financial services, is discussed alongside some ... More

Colonized and Colonizers: Ireland in the British Empire  

Stephen Howe

Print publication date:
Mar 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This chapter attempts a broad historical and historiographical survey of relations between Irish history and that of the British Empire—both of Ireland as subject to English, then British ... More

Confederation and Union, 1641–60  

Jane Ohlmeyer

Print publication date:
Mar 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
The 1640s and 1650s were defining decades in Irish history. The 1641 rebellion played a crucial role in shaping the triple Stuart monarchy during the seventeenth century and triggered a ... More

De Valera’s Ireland, 1932–58  

Diarmaid Ferriter

Print publication date:
Mar 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Following defeat in the civil war of 1922–23, Irish republicans formed a new political party, Fianna Fáil, in 1926. By 1932, Fianna Fáil, under the leadership of Eamon de Valera, achieved ... More

Discipline, Terror, and the State  

Paul Hagenloh

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
Violence was key to state administration and politics in interwar Europe, particularly in the major authoritarian regimes on the Continent: Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy, and the Soviet ... More

The Distinctiveness of Soviet Culture  

Jeffrey Brooks and Sergei I. Zhuk

Online publication date:
Aug 2014
The quintessentially Soviet element of cultural development in the USSR between 1932 and 1991 was Socialist Realism. The period prior to the 1930s was its preface and that from the ... More

Early Hanoverian Ireland, 1690–1750  

D. W. Hayton

Print publication date:
Mar 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
The Williamite settlement confirmed a ‘Protestant ascendancy’, with government and politics dominated by a narrow propertied elite. Protestant landowners still saw themselves as ‘the ... More

The Economics of Total War and Reconstruction, 1914–1922  

Matthias Blum and Jari Eloranta

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
This chapter features a discussion of the economy and mobilization for the First World War. The authors analyse the implications and cost of total war, concluding with an examination of ... More

The Emergence of the Irish Catholic Nation, 1750–1850  

Thomas Bartlett

Print publication date:
Mar 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This chapter seeks to trace the process by which the terms the ‘people of Ireland’, the ‘whole people of Ireland’, even the ‘Irish nation’ changed from meaning the Protestants of Ireland ... More

Emigration, 1800–1920  

Donald M. MacRaild

Print publication date:
Mar 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This chapter explores Ireland’s epic migrations of the long nineteenth century: a period in which the country exported a higher proportion of population than any other European state. It ... More

Europe’s Civil Wars, 1941–1949  

Aviel Roshwald

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
A number of the conflicts that wracked European countries under Axis-power occupation during the Second World War can be understood as civil wars. This analytical prism should be seen as ... More

Europe, the War, and the Colonial World  

Martin Thomas

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
The fact that we know the end points of formal colonial rule may lead us to forget that, for those involved, the process appeared less determined and more contingent. It is deceptively ... More

European Integration, Human Rights, and Romantic Internationalism  

Marco Duranti

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
This chapter offers a critical perspective on the historiography of European integration and human rights by tracing the interplay of romantic and technocratic forms of internationalism ... More

European Sexualities in the Age of Total War  

Dagmar Herzog

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
This chapter explores transformations in European sexual mores and practices in the era of the two world wars. It pays particular attention to the contradictory dynamics of the interwar ... More

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