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Absolute Monarchy  

Peter R. Campbell

Print publication date:
Nov 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article argues that in spite of absolute monarchy's success in seemingly rising above society it developed claims and practices that ran counter to long-term representative tendencies ... More

The African Americans’ Revolution  

Gary B. Nash

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
The American Revolution played an important role in African Americans' quest for freedom. It marked the first mass rebellion by slaves in American history, gave rise to the first civil ... More

The Agrarian East  

Edgar Melton

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2015
This chapter deals with the vast territories east of the Elbe river, including Poland–Lithuania, the Czech lands, Brandenburg–Prussia, and Russia. There are two primary and interlocking ... More

The Agrarian West  

Tom Scott

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
The main developments in western European agrarian society and economy are surveyed at the outset in a regional analysis which stresses the degree of variety within quite small areas and ... More

America’s Cultural Revolution in Transnational Perspective  

Leora Auslander

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
Through their successfully waged war and also by their novel political strategies, eighteenth-century North Americans seeking home rule made history. By systematically organizing around a ... More

The American Revolution and a New National Politics  

Rosemarie Zagarri

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
When the American Revolution was over, citizens of the new nation could not agree about the event's true meaning and the best way to preserve its authentic legacy. After the new federal ... More

Art and Architecture  

T. K. Rabb

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Mar 2015
This chapter traces the revolution in style and taste that swept over the visual arts as a result of the movement we call the Renaissance. Not only was there a transformation in subject ... More

Asian Connections and Chinese Comparisons: The Unconquered East  

R. Bin Wong

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2015
Many of early modern Europe’s connections to Asia were commercial in nature, in contrast to the colonial relations forged by Europeans in the Americas. This chapter considers the ways in ... More

Atlantic Trade and Commodities, 1402–1815  

David Hancock

Print publication date:
Mar 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article reviews the transfer of goods and services between the continents bordering the Atlantic Ocean. It shows that the demands of long-distance trade, particularly but not solely ... More

Authority and Popular Resistance  

Samuel K. Cohn, Jr

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Dec 2014
Divisions between Marxist and non-Marxist historians have fuelled debate of late medieval and early modern popular protest over the past fifty years. Yet, an underlying consensus has ... More

The Barbarous North? Criminality in Early Modern Scotland  

Anne‐Marie Kilday

Print publication date:
Jan 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
The notion that Scotland has long been depicted as a lawless, ‘uncivilized’ nation by its more ‘civilized’ southern counterpart is a historical red herring. Rather, it was not until the ... More

Belief and its Limits  

Mack P. Holt

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
‘Belief and its Limits’ outlines five major themes: (1) the transformation started by the Protestant and Catholic reformations of the sixteenth century that refashioned the way most people ... More

The Bohemian Reformations  

Howard Louthan

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Jan 2016
The article examines religious changes in Bohemia and Moravia from the age of Emperor Charles IV (1346–1378) through the first half of the seventeenth century. It begins by considering the ... More

Britain’s American Problem: The International Perspective  

P. J. Marshall

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
Britain valued its American colonies primarily because of their contribution to the nation's security, power, and influence in Europe. A recurring British fear was that France, Britain's ... More

The British Army and the War of Independence  

Stephen R. Conway

Print publication date:
Dec 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
During the American Revolution, Britain relied primarily on its army to subdue the rebellious colonies. At its peak, the British army in North America had approximately 50,000 officers and ... More

Calvin and Reformed Protestantism  

Mack P. Holt

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2015
Reformed Protestantism originated in the 1520s in both Zurich under the direction of Ulrich Zwingli and in Strasbourg under the influence of Martin Bucer and several others. It was not ... More

The Cartographic Emergence of Europe?  

Valerie A. Kivelson

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
Like any human construct, Europe had to be imagined into being. It emerged gradually as an idea, a place, a people, and a culture, from its first appearance in ancient texts through its ... More

The Christian Church, 13701550  

David J. Collins S.J.

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
This chapter reviews major themes in the history of Western Christianity from the onset of the Western Schism (1378) to the opening of the Council of Trent (1345). Topics include late ... More

Colonial Societies  

Gabriel Paquette

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
This chapter traces the development of European colonial societies in the extra-European world c. 1500–1800, chiefly in the Americas. It examines the factors affecting the growth and ... More

Comparisons and Consequences in Global Perspective, 1500–1750  

Merry Wiesner-Hanks

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Dec 2015
This chapter places the Protestant Reformation in a global perspective in two ways, using methods and examining themes common in world history as a field. First, it compares the ... More

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