Bradley L. Kirkman, Cristina B. Gibson, and Kwanghyun Kim
Research on virtual teams continues to grow as this form of teaming is increasingly adopted by organizations worldwide. To comprehensively analyze the growing literature on virtual teams, we reviewed 197 articles published between 1986 and 2008. We organize our review both by level of analysis (i.e., individual, group, and organization) and by relevance to the input-emergent state-process-output (IEPO) framework, yielding 12 theoretically meaningful categories of research. We summarize and synthesize this research over the last 22 years in each of these 12 areas, and we conclude with directions for future research related to five overarching themes: (a) the conceptualization of virtuality; (b) team development; (c) virtual team leadership; (d) levels of analysis; and (e) multidisciplinary approaches.
Katerina Bohle Carbonell and Jeroen J.G. van Merrienboer
The increasing number of changes at the workplace created through automation, political upheavals, and new technology frequently exposes individuals to unfamiliar situations. Mastering these situations requires individuals to possess adaptive expertise. By being an adaptive expert, individuals are able to deal with novel situations and remain performing at their original level. By drawing on recent literature, the goal of this chapter is to describe what adaptive expertise is. We contrast it with routine expertise to clarify when adaptive expertise produces superior performance to routine expertise. Subsequently we compare adaptive expertise to other expertise concepts. Following this, we describe how adaptive expertise can be developed and measured. The chapter ends with a number of recommendations of how individuals can be stimulated to develop adaptive expertise.
Elaine D. Pulakos, Rose A. Mueller-Hanson, and Johnathan K. Nelson
In this chapter, we examine issues relevant to incorporating trainability and adaptive performance into selection research. We adopt the definition of adaptive performance suggested by Pulakos et al. (2000) that specified eight dimensions defining this construct. One of these dimensions, leaning new tasks, technology, and procedures, was used to define trainability. We then examine recent models of adaptive performance and training to identify likely predictors of adaptability and trainability and propose a method for determining when and where these criteria should be included and explicitly predicted in selection research. We examine the pros and cons associated with different criterion measures and recommend that typical rating measures potentially supplemented by lower-fidelity work sample measures be incorporated in selection research. Finally, we discuss gaps in the current literature and recommend areas for future research.
Hanna van Solinge
This chapter provides a summary of developments in retirement adjustment research. The chapter starts with a review of the major theoretical approaches to adjustment to life events in general, and retirement in particular. The second part provides a summary of empirical findings. To organize these findings, a distinction is made between research focusing on the descriptive question regarding the general impact of retirement on the individual, and research posing the explanatory question of why adjustment is more difficult in some cases than in others. The last part highlights future directions that may be fruitful for researchers in this area. Both methodological issues and empirical gaps in the literature are adressed. This chapter seeks to contribute to the understanding of how the loss of work affects successful aging and hopes to offer more insight into the circumstances under which retirement jeopardizes the well-being of older adults.
Bruce J. Avolio and Ketan H. Mhatre
This review tracks the evolution of the theory of authentic leadership from its theoretical conception to more recent empirical research. We begin this chapter by providing an overview of the construct of authenticity and various conceptualizations in the research literature. We follow that by an examination of the theoretical advances that have characterized the field of authentic leadership by outlining the competing models of authentic leadership proposed in prior research literature. Next, we summarize the empirical validation studies of the theory of authentic leadership in an effort to highlight the development that the field of authentic leadership has undergone over the past 6 years. And, finally, we synthesize research findings and use them as a platform for offering suggestions to facilitate future leadership research and practice.
Jerry W. Hedge and Walter C. Borman
The convergence of technological innovations, global aging of the workforce, changing occupational trends, and retirement patterns points to dramatic differences in workplace and workforce perspectives in the decades ahead. This chapter integrates some key issues highlighted in the chapters of this volume, and reflects on the future of work and aging research and application.
Steve W. J. Kozlowski and Bradford S. Bell
Many scholars have observed that the structure of work in contemporary organizations is becoming increasingly team centric and that this structural shift is driven by pressures for organizational adaptation and innovation. This has prompted scholarly interest in the concept of team learning. Unfortunately, despite this rising interest, team learning as an area of theory development and research has been hampered by ongoing conceptual ambiguities and inconsistencies. In particular, learning processes and knowledge outcomes are often not distinguished clearly and are frequently treated interchangeably. Our goal is to articulate a clear conceptualization of team learning as a process and to distinguish team learning processes from team knowledge outcomes. We view this distinction as essential for advancing this important area of inquiry.
Tammy D. Allen and Lillian T. Eby
In this final chapter we offer a summation of some of the major themes contained in this volume with regard to future research needs, including a discussion of work–family theory building, the role of gender in the work–family interface, the diversity of the modern family, family supportive organizational policies and practices, and work-family intervention research. We move beyond summation and review by offering specific new ideas for moving work–family scholarship forward. In doing so we highlight the importance of investing in work–family initiatives that enrich employee lives as well as those that benefit families, organizations, and society at large.
Anthony R. Kovner
I have spent more than a decade trying to get managers and those who study management to use an evidence-based process where interventions to improve performance are concerned. This chapter describes my experiences including teaching a graduate capstone course, writing a text on evidence-based management in health-care, decision making as a board member of a large hospital, and attempting to launch evidence-based management research with practitioners.
This chapter describes my experiences and interpretations of early efforts to promote and practice evidence-based management. It includes my personal experiences, tacit knowledge derived from those experiences, the experiences of others in similar situations, expert opinion, case studies and other relevant information.
Donald M. Truxillo, Lisa M. Finkelstein, Amy C. Pytlovany, and Jade S. Jenkins
People are working longer, with the result that workplaces are becoming older and more age-diverse. For these reasons, workplace age discrimination is of increasing importance. This chapter describes a number of mechanisms that may explain age stereotyping and may lead to workplace age discrimination in the areas of hiring, training, performance appraisal, layoffs and reemployment, and interpersonal treatment. Noting that the growing interest in age at work among researchers and practitioners has led to a number of recent developments, the chapter reviews more recent advances in the field of workplace age discrimination and recommends a number of pathways for future research.
Richard A. Posthuma, María Fernanda Wagstaff, and Michael A. Campion
This chapter analyzes the current state of research on the topic of age stereotypes and age discrimination in the workplace. Recognizing the growing importance of age stereotyping research as the workforces of many countries continue to grow older, this chapter defines and differentiates the important concepts used in this field of research (e.g., age stereotyping, ageism, age discrimination). Specific illustrations of age stereotyping are identified, and it is shown how these stereotypes can have negative impacts on both workers and their employers. The relationship between age stereotyping and age discrimination is discussed with reference to recent court cases. A meta-framework that provides guidance for future research is offered to enhance the coordinated growth of research in this field. Finally, specifi c directions for future research and best practices for organizations are identified.
Barbara Griffin, Vanessa Loh, and Beryl Hesketh
This chapter considers the complex role of age and gender in the retirement process. Although typically used as control variables in research, we discuss relevant theories that might explain why both age and gender need to be considered as key drivers of the process, then review empirical findings related to their effect on retirement timing, on the various patterns of work and non-work that people choose when transitioning to full retirement, on the extent that people plan for retirement, and on their level of adjustment in retirement.
Statutory, judicial, and regulatory law in the United States serves as a model for other countries as regards workplace discrimination based on race, ethnicity, gender, disability, and age. This chapter focuses on the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) and related statutes. Case law related to disparate treatment, adverse impact, and facial discrimination against older workers is surveyed, particularly as relates to hiring and termination of individuals, maximum hiring and retirement, discrimination in health and retirement benefits, and reductions-in-force (RIFs). Recommendations are provided for correcting false ageist attitudes among front-line employers, managers, and supervisors; for conducting fair and efficient performance appraisals of workers of all ages; and for applying a specific strategy for conducting a fair and legal RIF.
Thomas W. H. Ng and Daniel C. Feldman
The core purpose of this book chapter is to integrate the literatures on aging and career development. In particular, we discuss the specific processes through which aging affects employees’ participation in career development activities; that is, why people of different ages put different levels of effort into career development. Our discussion draws on a wide range of theories, including social cognition theory, life-space life-span theory, career timetable theory, social exchange theory, and socioemotional selectivity theory. Collectively, these various theoretical perspectives lead us to predict that there are multiple pathways through which aging can affect participation in career development activities. The chapter concludes with discussion of implications for management practice and future research directions.
The Aging of the Workforce in European Countries: Demographic Trends, Retirement Projections, and Retirement Policies
Vegard Skirbekk, Elke Loichinger, and Bilal F. Barakat
The demographic shifts under way in parts of Europe represent significant challenges from a labor market and pension system point of view. This chapter takes a review of projections of the size and age profile of European populations as its starting point for an investigation of different scenarios of retirement arrangements. As important as numerical changes in the age composition are the favorable trends with respect to education, skills, health, and remaining life expectancy past retirement age of future cohorts of retirees. These trends provide some room in many European countries for retirement policies that encourage a longer working life. Even a moderate increase of the effective retirement age will in many cases stabilize old-age dependency ratios in many European countries.
Tracey E. Rizzuto, Katie E. Cherry, and Jared A. LeDoux
Aging trends worldwide raise awareness for the need to understand the impact of cognitive aging on the work lives and productivity of older adults. By confronting actual and perceptual challenges associated with cognitive aging, organizations can better support this vital workforce segment. This chapter describes the effects of aging on select aspects of cognitive functioning, and reviews research from laboratory and on-the-job studies to address how the performance of job tasks and other life activities may be affected. Various cognitive aging dimensions and their implications for job performance are discussed. In addition, methodological concerns and challenges associated with cognitive aging research are described, along with new directions for successful aging among late-career workers.
Elissa L. Perry, Gina Dokko, and Frank D. Golom
Two perspectives have been used to understand the experiences of aging workers in the workplace: the age discrimination and diversity perspective, and the relational demography perspective. We suggest that these approaches are limited and that Person–Environment (P-E) fit theory provides a broader theoretical framework that is potentially more useful, even though it has not been applied to understanding the experiences of aging workers specifically. A P-E fit approach suggests that the degree of compatibility between an individual and a work environment influences the individual’s attitudes, behaviors, and employment outcomes. We apply this framework and review relevant literature to understand how individuals “fit” their job, a coworker, their work group, and their organization as a function of their age, and the ensuing consequences of this fit.
Lori Foster Thompson and Christopher B. Mayhorn
Emerging innovations have the potential to facilitate or impede the success of older workers, who are expected to operate in an increasingly high-tech environment. As discussed in this chapter, tools and technologies have been developed to help older adults capitalize on their strengths and overcome age-related limitations with respect to working memory, physical strength, visual acuity, and mobility. In addition, technology can function to reduce age discrimination and enhance training, social support, and networking opportunities. Despite its potential, technology can also cause new problems, thus contributing to the challenges faced by older workers. Such problems may stem from a lack of usability and attitudinal barriers to technology acceptance. Technology design and training are critical areas that must be considered to address these issues. Attention to these matters will advance the success of older adults who remain in the workforce and facilitate the reintegration of those who seek re-employment after retirement.
Lauren Eyster, Demetra Smith Nightingale, and Jaclyn Nidoh
With the increasing numbers of older Americans and the need for employment at older ages, the aim of this chapter is to explore recent trends in older workers’ employment and retirement patterns by various subgroups such as age, gender, race and immigration status, income, and occupation. A discussion of how these trends may differentially affect older workers’ future opportunities for continued work or retirement will also be provided. In addition, the major U.S. government policies and programs for individuals who stay in or return to the workforce at later ages are explained. The chapter ends with a discussion on the implications of these subgroup trends and future directions for research on subgroups of older workers.
Steven F. Cronshaw
The Canadian workforce is aging in a pattern similar to that in many other Western countries. If major global events do not intervene (e.g., mass migration from the South to northern climates in response to global warming), demographic aging of the workforce will continue to the middle of the 21st century. Apocalyptic demography predicts that population and workforce aging in Canada will have the inevitable effect of lowering national productivity and compromising the integrity of social programs. A review of research on the effects of workforce aging reported in this chapter refutes these apocalyptic predictions. Negative effects of workforce aging can be successfully ameliorated and managed through targeted economic and social policy combined with enlightened management practices. The transition to a graying workforce will be aided by education efforts informing the Canadian commonweal of the facts and fallacies of aging effects in the workplace.