Martin Binks and Simon Mosey
In the UK, business schools are being exhorted by government to engage with local organizations to enhance their competitiveness. However, a historical legacy of providing courses for international students and a research focus upon multinational firms has constrained the capability of most business schools to contribute in this way. This chapter highlights global examples of business schools recognizing the opportunity to develop locally useful knowledge and enhance the capabilities of their students to deploy that knowledge. Business schools are seen to significantly reposition their offer by developing the leadership skills of local organizations and enhancing the entrepreneurial and problem-solving skills of their students for local deployment. The chapter concludes that a sustained emphasis upon faculty and student engagement with local organizations can allow business schools to overcome legacy constraints and thereby contribute more fully to local economic competitiveness for mutual benefit.
Albert N. Link
The flow of knowledge from a university research park is not a new theme in the academic domain. Scholars have emphasized the flow of knowledge from university research parks, but those that have focused on the prevalence of this phenomenon in the United States have been somewhat limited in the availability of data related both to the genesis of the park and to the performance of the park. This chapter focuses on two performance measures: patents received and scholarly publications emanating from the research conducted by in-park firms. It finds that on-park firms have received more patents than comparable off-park firms, and the scientists in the on-park firms have published more scholarly articles than scientists in comparable off-park firms, all else remaining constant.
Claudio de Moura Castro
This chapter examines the evolution of education in Brazil over the long term. It is established that historical circumstances allied to successive policy failures help account for Brazil’s disappointing performance in the educational field in international comparative terms. In 1920, the system covered 9% of school-age children, 26% by 1950 and, more recently, 98% of 6–14-year-old children have been covered. The acceleration in growth, particularly since the 1950s, has been an impressive achievement. The latest records indicate that 71% of the relevant age cohort finishes basic education. Secondary education is completed by 51%. Compared to the past, this is quite an achievement. Compared to world or even Latin American standards, these results are mediocre at best. The available tests indicate weak performance. The chapter highlights the kinds of issues that will need to be addressed if this situation is to be tackled adequately.
Antonio Carlos Coelho Campino, Maria Dolores Montoya Diaz, and Flavia Mori Sarti
This chapter examines the historical background to the Brazilian health system and analyzes its characteristics from an economic perspective, considering the magnitude and evolution of inequities in health outcomes and the utilization of health services provided through universal health coverage policies in Brazil during recent decades. It also looks at questions regarding financial protection provided to the population by the Brazilian health system, and challenges for the future. The analysis encompasses information on the current state of research, population characteristics, attributes of the health system, evidence on health disparities, and challenges relating to the management of health care in the country. Demographic transition has compelled the country toward an incomplete epidemiological transition, marked by the coexistence of infectious diseases (traditional unresolved illnesses and emerging maladies) and chronic non-communicable diseases derived from technological advances and income growth (obesity, diabetes, hypertension, among others), without benefits from sustainable economic development.
Dirk W. Early and Edgar O. Olsen
Katharine Briar-Lawson, Paul Miesing, Donald S. Siegel, and Brad Watts
This chapter describes the University at Albany’s innovative $2.5 million Small Enterprise Economic Development (SEED) program. The program provides character-based microloans to low-income entrepreneurs in New York State’s Capital Region, supported by mentoring and guidance from local executives and graduate students. The chapter considers the opportunities and challenges of implementing such a program, based on the results of a pilot study. Although relatively new, SEED has generated some promising results relating to regional economic development. SEED may be a useful model for universities seeking to (1) extend credit to worthy entrepreneurs who are underserved by traditional funding sources; (2) enhance local competitiveness by stimulating economic development in inner-city neighborhoods and encourage social entrepreneurship. Unlike conventional economic development initiatives, which are typically targeted to high-tech firms, SEED is targeted to the “bottom of the pyramid” (Prahalad 2005). This unique program can be adopted by other universities seeking to promote regional economic and social development.
Erik E. Lehmann
The purpose of this chapter is to identify and analyze the role that universities and public research institutions play in influencing local competitiveness and regional development by knowledge spillovers. The chapter analyzes how human capital and knowledge spillovers shape regional competitiveness and sketch the literature analyzing the roots of regional development. The contribution that universities make in providing technology and innovation to enhancing the competitiveness of regions is analyzed within the German and European contexts. Specific conduits facilitating the transfer of technology and knowledge spillovers from universities and their impacts on regional performance are identified. The chapter concludes that globalization today, with its increasing dynamic in the interrelations of markets, and cultural and social life and decreasing costs of communication and mobility, reshapes the landscape again and increases the importance of universities for regional competitiveness.