Dan Morrow and Renato F.L. Azevedo
This chapter reviews literature related to relationships between expertise and aging. It first considers how experts excel on domain-relevant tasks despite cognitive limitations and how these expertise-related advantages develop, which suggest ways in which adults can offset age-related cognitive constraints to maintain performance in later years. The chapter then reviews studies that examine two issues about how expertise influences performance as we age. First, to what extent high-level experts can retain superior levels of performance as they age, an issue often addressed in fairly narrow domains such as games, sports, and music. A second, broader issue concerns whether the benefits or costs associated with domain-general as well as domain-specific knowledge change with age. This second issue is central to lifespan theory: To what extent does knowledge and skill associated with experience offset age-related declines in abilities and function.
Rosemary S.C. Horne and Sarah N. Biggs
Although polysomnography is the gold standard for recording sleep, the use of actigraphy in conjunction with a sleep diary is now common in the study of sleep/wake patterns in infants, children, and adolescents. Actigraphy has the advantage of being able to record data over long periods of time while the subject carries out his or her normal routine. The devices are small, lightweight, and can be worn on the wrist in a similar manner to a wristwatch, or on the ankle as is often used in infant studies. A number of studies have validated actigraphy against polysomnography for determining sleep and found good agreements; however, the specificity for determining wake is low across all ages of children. In conjunction with a sleep diary, the accuracy of actigraphy is significantly improved. Conversely, accuracy of parental reporting of sleep and wake using a sleep diary can be significantly improved when used in conjunction with actigraphy. The use of actigraphy in clinical medicine is expanding as it provides important supplementary information to clinicians regarding a variety of sleep disorders.
Lisa S. Segre, Michael W. O'Hara, and Elena Perkhounkova
Women experiencing depressive symptoms often do not seek timely treatment from a mental health professional. This review focuses specifically on adapted approaches and tailored interventions for perinatal depression that increase their acceptability and accessibility. The effects of these adapted depression interventions cover a broad range; to compare these new treatments only those resulting in statistically significant improvement are reviewed. Some adaptations, even those provided by non–mental health specialists, produced effects equal to or surpassing those achieved by traditional treatment strategies. Suggestions for future research have two foci. First, because depressed perinatal women are also likely to suffer from comorbid disorders such as anxiety, it is important to evaluate the effectiveness of adapted treatments on complex cases. Second, the implementation setting of adapted treatments has generally been limited. Evaluating how these interventions might be incorporated into new settings as part of a stepped-care approach moves research from the bench into clinical settings.
Theresa S. Betancourt and William R. Beardslee
We concentrate on the psychosocial and developmental consequences of major life adversity on child and family mental health, with particular attention to regions affected by communal violence and regions affected by HIV/AIDS. In both of these contexts, there is an overlap of several forms of family adversity that commonly characterize large proportions of developing children and their caregivers. As opposed to a simplistic view of children in adversity which ascribes their long-term well-being as mainly linked to traumatic exposures or individual characteristics, a developmental and ecological lens is used to consider the many ways in which mental health and well-being are shaped by the interplay between individual, family, community, and societal factors. We conclude with a series of recommendations illustrating the interplay between building the evidence base, increasing political will to make change, and improving the implementation of high quality and sustainable services for children, youth, and families.
Constance Flanagan, Cynthia Lin, Helyn Luisi-Mills, Allison Sambo, and Ming Hu
Two cultural frames (the nation-state and groupways) as lenses for understanding adolescent civic development are explored. The authors argue that distinct cultural models of citizenship reflect different definitions of the prerogatives and obligations that bind people in a political community. These models change as groups challenge the status quo and as younger generations become part of the body politic. Through their collective, public actions in the mediating institutions of civil society, adolescents construct their civic identities and, in the process, contribute to social stability and social change. Adolescents’ civic consciousness is built up over time via groupways (their everyday actions and relationships of power as members of cultural groups).
Josefina M. Grau, Kathryn S. Wilson, Erin N. Smith, Patricia Castellanos, and Petra A. Duran
Adolescent birthrates in the United States are much higher than those in other developed countries, and the majority of adolescents who become mothers come from impoverished backgrounds. Not surprisingly, they experience significant adjustment difficulties, and both their own and their children's developmental outcomes are often compromised. In this chapter, we review the adolescent parenting literature with the goal of uncovering the unique patterns of factors that may enable young mothers to parent successfully despite their disadvantaged conditions. We start with a description of the historic trends in birthrates and the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of adolescent mothers in the United States, to provide the context in which they are parenting their children. We then review the literature on factors related to their parenting behaviors and the developmental outcomes of their children, including individual, familial, sociodemographic and cultural risk and protective factors. Finally, we conclude and provide future directions for research in the field.
Marcela Raffaelli and Maria Iturbide
This chapter examines adolescent risk and resilience across cultures. It provides an overview of resilience theory and identifies constructs applicable to the study of adolescence as a developmental period. It then examines the role of culture in adolescent development. Next, the chapter examines how issues of risk and resilience play out in three specific adolescent populations: children growing up in immigrant families in the US, impoverished and homeless Brazilian youth, and war-affected children around the world. The final section contains recommendations for future research synthesizing the study of resilience, culture, and adolescent development. Integrating the study of resilience and the study of culture can result in a more nuanced way of understanding developmental risk and resilience.
Matthew A. Diemer and Brooke A. Seyffert
Anthony A. Volk
A significant body of literature has examined human families from an evolutionary perspective. Another significant body of literature has examined adoptive families. Unfortunately, these two bodies of literature have generally been kept separate from each other. To address this gap, I examine adoption from an evolutionary perspective. My goal is to both better understand adoption via evolutionary theory, as well as to better understand the evolution of families via adoption. I examine several forms and functions of adoption, including adoption as a substitute for biological children, adoption as a means of kin support, and adoption as a means of social exchange and manipulation. From an evolutionary perspective, what stands out about adoption is its ubiquity and its diversity, its emphasis on biological kinship, and its potential utility as a social tool. I recommend further studies on the ecology of adoption, as well as unifying adoption with other modern approaches to families, including cognitive psychology and neuroscience.
Adult Development in Japan and the United States: Comparing Theories and Findings About Growth, Maturity, and Well-Being
Carol D. Ryff, Jennifer Morozink Boylan, Christopher L. Coe, Mayumi Karasawa, Norito Kawakami, Shinobu Kitayama, Chiemi Kan, Gayle D. Love, Cynthia S. Levine, Hazel R. Markus, Yuri Miyamoto, Jun Nakahara, and Jiyoung Park
This chapter examines early conceptual formulations of adult development in the U.S. and contrasts them with notably different conceptions of aging in Japan. Empirical research in both cultural contexts points to evidence of psychological change in personality traits, well-being, affect with aging in the U.S., whereas Japanese studies have linked the well-being of older persons to life roles and activities as well as examined the concept of ikigai (what makes life worthy). Gender differences are an emerging part of the story, especially in Japan. The authors delineate multiple avenues for future research to broaden the scope of scientific inquiries on adult development and aging in Japan as well as promote greater exchange between cultural psychologists and adult developmentalists. More work is also called for to link adult developmental changes to health and to examine historical changes in experiences of aging.