Paige H. Fisher, Susan Nolan, and Magdalena Galazyn
This chapter offers recommendations, evidence-based when possible, on teaching abnormal psychology in an effective and engaging manner. In the first section, we address issues related to the content of an Abnormal Psychology course. We outline the traditional content areas, as well as current topics that are often underemphasized, such as controversies with diagnosis, and international and cross-cultural issues. In the second section, we provide an overview of pedagogical tools that are particularly relevant for an abnormal psychology course, including the use of case material, role-play, and simulation; we provide suggestions on how to use these tools to create a stimulating and interactive classroom. In the third section, we outline ethical issues that can emerge when teaching abnormal psychology, such as informed consent and classroom management of sensitive topics, and offer suggestions for creating an ethical classroom environment.
Kelly B. Haskard-Zolnierek and Summer L. Williams
This chapter outlines the ways in which depression and other mental health issues influence adherence and health-behavior change. Patient adherence and health-behavior change are defined and described. Common mental health issues including depression and anxiety are described as well as the prevalence of nonadherence to treatment for these conditions. Next, comorbidity of physical and mental health issues are discussed, such as depression co-occurring with various chronic diseases, providing evidence of the effects of mental health on adherence and health-behavior change. The mechanisms for the relationship of mental health to adherence and health-behavior change are discussed through the framework of the information-motivation-strategy model, with adherence being affected due to cognitive factors, motivational factors, and resource-related factors. The chapter concludes with a discussion of what health-care professionals can do to address and reduce this barrier to adherence and health-behavior change.
Jeffrey J. Wilson and Megan Janoff
Adolescents with substance use disorders (SUDs) have the highest proportion of co-occurring psychiatric disorders (CODs) compared to other age cohorts. Externalizing psychiatric disorders, such as conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and attention-deficit disorders, are most commonly associated with adolescent SUDs compared to older adults with SUD. The developmental psychopathology of SUD is reviewed. Categories of COD are reviewed, in turn, beginning with externalizing or disruptive behavior disorders. Disruptive behavior disorders are critical to the developmental psychopathology of adolescent SUD. Studies of co-occurring depressive and bipolar disorders are then considered in detail, examining the relationship between SUD and these particular CODs. Finally, the relationships between anxiety, thought, eating and personality disorders, and adolescent SUD are examined.
Frederick G. Lopez
For over three decades, attachment theory has served as a versatile and generative framework for studying how the dynamics of close, enduring emotional bonds with others (i.e., attachments) affect psychosocial growth and development across the life span. Indeed, in recent years, a substantial literature on adult attachment has emerged that has probed the nature, correlates, and consequences of security in one's intimate adult relationships. Although this literature initially emphasized the adverse impacts of attachment insecurity on human functioning, contemporary studies are increasingly adopting a positive psychological perspective that explores the contributions of secure adult relationships to the promotion and maintenance of healthy and adaptive behavior within and across multiple life domains. This chapter highlights this shift in emphasis by first considering how the positive psychology roots of attachment theory, as well as advances in the conceptualization and measurement of adult attachment security, support these initiatives. Following this, a selection of recent studies specifically examining associations between adult attachment security and such relevant constructs as hope, optimism, positive affect, parenting and caregiving competence, academic and career-related motivation, altruistic behavior, and existential well-being are reviewed. Taken together, findings from this emergent literature suggest that adult attachment security can serve as a major organizational construct in the continuing development of positive psychology. Finally, some potentially fruitful directions for future research on the synergistic contributions of adult attachment security to human competence and well-being are briefly discussed.
Adult Psychosocial Adjustment to Visible Differences: Physical and Psychological Predictors of Variation
Timothy P. Moss and Ben Rosser
Gail M. Williamson and Juliette Christie
Contrary to popular belief, the majority of adults over the age of 65 are physically and psychologically healthy. They are not cognitively deficient, socially isolated, or lonely, nor do they drain society's resources. They are aging well, and to the extent that they are able to engage in valued activities, they will continue to do so. A key component of adapting to growing older is the ability to maintain the sense of personal control that can be threatened by normal aging processes. The Activity Restriction Model of Depressed Affect proposes that to age successfully is to maintain physical and cognitive functioning via engagement in personally meaningful activities. Indeed, activity restriction—or the inability to continue normal activities that often follows stressful life events such as debilitating illness—is a major factor in poorer mental health outcomes. Potential contributors to activity restriction and depression are identified. Interventions to reduce activity restriction in older adults should focus on promoting manageable activities, taking into consideration individual differences in functional, psychological, and social resources.