This chapter reviews age differences in metacognitive control, defined as behaviors based on the monitoring of cognitive systems and states with the goal of improving the quality of cognition, especially the likelihood of successful remembering. Metacognitive monitoring and control are promising means of improving older adults’ cognition and can compensate for age-related cognitive decline. A prototypical type of metacognitive control studied in aging research involves the self-testing procedure to guide allocation of study time and strategic effort. Older adults often fail to use this strategy even though it can be highly effective for them. Evidence regarding age differences in metacognitive control using more complicated multitrial learning tasks is mixed. The literature is still in its formative stages and age differences in observed metacognitive control should not be taken as signifying irremediable aging-related deficits. Issues with the existing body of evidence and suggestions for future research questions are highlighted.
Alexandra Ernst, Chris J.A. Moulin, Celine Souchay, Daniel C. Mograbi, and Robin Morris
While metacognition and anosognosia have long been studied as distinct concepts, more recently we have endeavored to construct a theoretical framework for exploring how metacognition can contribute to our understanding of anosognosia and vice versa. Following this approach, with a particular focus on Alzheimer’s disease (AD), this chapter first gives an overview of the key experimental findings and issues on metacognition in AD patients: in particular, overconfidence and absolute awareness; the sensitivity approach; the fractionation of metacognition in AD; the neural substrates of metacognition in the Alzheimer brain; and metacognitive control in these patients. Second, the chapter discusses the concept of anosognosia in AD patients from a cognitive neuropsychological viewpoint. It addresses models such as the cognitive awareness model and evidence from metacognition studies, and how they contribute to disentangle the issue of measuring anosognosia in AD patients. Finally, it develops the emerging concept of “implicit awareness” in AD patients.
R. Peter Hobson
In order to understand the pathogenesis of autism, one needs to have an adequate framework within which to think about the nature of typical as well as atypical early human mental development. From a complementary perspective, the study of autism may challenge our ways of thinking about the mind itself. For example, are we justified in introducing divisions among cognition, conation, and affect in characterizing early development? What is the epistemological basis for children's understanding of others' minds? How should we think about the origins of and basis for symbolic functioning? This chapter explores the relevance of philosophy for our accounts of autism, highlighting the importance of ideas from Wittgenstein and Strawson in particular, and illustrates fresh ways in which autism might contribute to debates in philosophy of mind.
This chapter is an overview of music therapy, a healthcare profession in which music is used as a therapeutic medium to address developmental, adaptive, and rehabilitative goals in the areas of speech and language, cognition, sensorimotor, and psychosocial behavior of individuals with a variety of neurological, psychological, physical, and medical diagnoses. A music therapist must receive a referral, upon which they are responsible for completing an assessment, developing a treatment plan, documenting the progress of a client throughout treatment, evaluating progress, and developing a termination plan for their client. Over 6000 United States board-certified music therapists are employed throughout the world, serving a wide range of populations, including geriatrics, developmentally disabled adults and children, mental health populations, physically disabled, school-aged children, early childhood, substance abuse, sensory impaired, neurologically impaired, and terminally ill.
Amy Wenzel and Megan Spokas
Cognitive and information processing variables have the potential to account for the mechanisms that lead up to and operate during a suicidal crisis. This chapter evaluates the empirical research on suicide-relevant cognitive content variables (i.e., hopelessness, perfectionism, burdensomeness, low belongingness, unbearability) and information processing variables (i.e., problem-solving deficits, overgeneral memory, future thinking, attentional biases, implicit associations). It is concluded that many of these variables interact with one another during suicidal crises and can serve as both distal and proximal risk factors for suicidal behavior. In addition, five contemporary cognitive models of suicidal behavior are presented, and the manner in which they might operate at different stages in the onset of suicidal crises is considered.
Jill Lobbestael and Arnoud Arntz
The purpose of this chapter is to provide an understanding of the pathology of personality disorders from a cognitive perspective. The chapter begins by outlining cognitive schemas, particularly those developed by Drs. Beck and Young, along with a summary and discussion of the relevant empirical research. This is followed by a discussion of schema modes. Next is a discussion of cognitive biases; more specifically, biases in attention, interpretation, and memory. This is followed by a discussion of dichotomous thinking and then the implicit assessment of cognitive concepts. The chapter ends with final conclusions and suggestions for future research.
Jacqueline Zöllig, Mike Martin, and Vera Schumacher
Cognitive development in ageing is a multidimensional and multidirectional phenomenon characterized by age-related changes in the plasticity of different dimensions of cognitive functions. Gains, stability, and losses can be observed across abilities and across persons as they age. Although with the closeness to death losses are predominant, several cognitive abilities on average show stability and even increases well into extreme old age. Importantly, the individually differing uses of the ability to learn, and cognitive as well as neural plasticity can explain the heterogeneity of cognitive ageing. Based on different approaches to cognitive ageing, different training methods have been introduced over the past years focusing on cognitive processes, primary mental abilities, higher-order cognitive constructs, and global cognition involving multiple cognitive domains. They demonstrate the possibilities to improve cognitive functioning and to extend the phase of autonomous living for several years. A more recent and promising concept is the integration of the existing approaches within a functional approach to cognitive development framing elementary cognitive ability use within the context of their functional value for independent living and autonomy. Due to its applicability to resource orchestration at all levels of functioning it has implications for the understanding of everyday cognitive performances and clinical practice.
Roberta F. White
This chapter provides an overview on cognitive disorders in adults from a neuropsychological perspective. It begins with a critical review of existing taxonomies for these disorders, especially those contained in the DSM-IV and continues with a summary of neuropsychological terminology used in the chapter and the effects of focal brain lesions. A number of medical and neurological disorders are described, and their cognitive correlates are reviewed using data from clinical case studies and epidemiologic research. The conditions summarized include a brief consideration of medical disorders that do not involve primary central nervous system pathology, followed by extensive review of brain insults (trauma, infections, exposures) and primary neurological disorders (dementias, cerebrovascular disease, motor system disorders, structural lesions, epilepsy, autoimmune disorders). A concluding section describes current issues in understanding cognitive disorders and likely future approaches to research on them.
Tina H. Schweizer and Benjamin L. Hankin
This chapter focuses on how several prominent cognitive risk processes (attention bias, overgeneral autobiographical memory, executive functioning difficulties) and products (negative inferential style, dysfunctional attitudes, depressive rumination) may translate stress into different forms of prevalent psychopathologies, including internalizing (e.g., depression, anxiety) and externalizing disorders (e.g., conduct disorder). First, prominent conceptual models are presented that explain how cognitive risks relate to psychopathology and the interplay between stress and cognition in contributing to psychopathology. Second, the chapter describes how cognitive risks have typically been conceptualized and measured, and it reviews evidence on associations between each cognitive risk and different psychopathologies. Third, three conceptual models are presented that can be used to organize and understand the relations among stress, cognition, and psychopathology—(1) vulnerability-stress, (2) mechanism, and (3) transactional/bidirectional. Last, key future research directions are highlighted, including integrating cognitive risks across multiple units of analysis and establishing a taxonomy of cognitive risk.
Lauren B. Alloy, Lyn Abramson, Jonathan Stange, and Rachel Salk
Maladaptive cognitive styles, including dysfunctional attitudes about our self-worth, the tendency to make negative inferences about the causes and consequences of negative events, and the tendency to ruminate about our sad mood, have been hypothesized to provide vulnerability to depression when individuals experience stressful life events. This chapter presents an overview of the three main cognitive vulnerability theories of depression, Beck’s Cognitive Theory, the Hopelessness Theory, and Response Styles Theory, which feature these three proposed cognitive vulnerabilities, respectively. The chapter describes each of these cognitive vulnerabilities, their measurement, and the types of research designs that have been employed to test the cognitive vulnerability theories. It also reviews the empirical evidence for each of these three forms of cognitive vulnerability to depression. Finally, the chapter highlights directions for further research.