Karen Alvarenga Oliveira
This chapter examines the climate change policy of Brazil. In 2010 at the Sixteenth Conference of Parties in Cancún, Brazil announced its voluntary national target of significantly reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions between 36.1 per cent and 38.9 per cent of projected emissions by 2020. These targets were defined in the Brazilian National Policy on Climate Change (PNMC). The PNMC establishes principles, guidelines, and economic instruments for reaching the national voluntary targets. It relies on sectoral plans for mitigation and adaptation to climate change in order to facilitate the move towards a low-carbon economy. The PNMC defined various aspects related to the measurement of goals, formulation of sectoral plans and of action plans for the prevention and control of deforestation in all Brazilian biomes, and governance structure.
This chapter discusses India’s role in international climate law and its domestic law on climate change, and demonstrates the limits of its legal position in addressing climate-related threats. Climate change presents a complex challenge for India, which is reflected in its evolving set of climate change laws and policies. Aside from being one of countries most vulnerable to climate change, India is home to some of the world’s poorest people whose lives and property are threatened by climate change. The government has adopted various initiatives to comply with the Kyoto Protocol. The central national initiative on climate change is the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC). Action under NAPCC is premised on the principle of sustainable development, which for the purposes of climate change means achieving growth while at the same time minimizing greenhouse gas emissions.
This chapter is concerned with EU’s climate change law and its impact on climate change action at a global level. It investigates whether the international climate change regime ‘tightens’ its own standards so as to match EU climate change law. The corpus of EU climate change law is codified in the Climate and Energy Package, which aims to provide a comprehensive and integrated climate change framework. It includes measures promoting the use of renewable energy, specifying and thus helping to monitor and reduce greenhouse gases from fuel, setting standards for new passenger cars, establishing a framework for the geological storage of carbon dioxide, outlining the effort of Member States to reduce greenhouse gases to meet the 2020 commitments, as well as revising the EU emissions trading regime (ETS).
This chapter describes the roles of the forty-nine least developed countries (LDCs) in the international climate change regime and climate change law. It investigates the following questions: How has the historical role of the LDCs evolved in relation to the climate change regime? What are the key legal challenges facing these countries? In order to address these questions, this chapter examines the role of the LDCs through five phases of the climate negotiations thus far: Pre-1990 (Phase 1), 1990—1996 (Phase 2), 1997—2001 (Phase 3), 2001—2007 (Phase 4), and 2008—2013 (Phase 5). Together, they have contributed the least to the climate change problem, but experienced the highest climate change impacts, because of their higher levels of vulnerability and lower adaptive capacity. The chapter also discusses how the LDCs are caught in the cross-fire between the emerging economies, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), and developed countries.
Anna Korppoo, Max Gutbrod, and Sergey Sitnikov
This chapter outlines Russian legislation relevant to climate change. Russia ratified the Kyoto Protocol in 2004. The main legal elements of institutional compliance under the Protocol included requirements to submit annual greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories, following the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines, and to establish a registry to keep track of domestic emissions and implementation of the Kyoto mechanisms. The Federal Service of Russia for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring (Roshydromet), together with the Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, were designated as the entities responsible for developing Russia’s GHG inventory. Russia’s compliance was driven by its opportunity to participate in the Kyoto mechanisms. These flexibility mechanisms—Joint Implementation (JI) and International Emissions Trading—allow industrial countries to trade emission allowances in order to direct climate mitigation investments into the most cost-effective measures available.
Michael B. Gerrard
This chapter presents an overview of climate change law in the United States, given the global impact of its domestic and international climate change policies. It traces the evolution of US climate change policy under different presidents, and discusses emerging programs under the Clean Air Act (CAA). Under the CAA, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issues emissions standards, and under the Energy Policy Conservation Act, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) issues Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards. The chapter also describes the protection of endangered species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The ESA directs the Fish and Wildlife Service to designate certain species as endangered or threatened; for marine species that task falls to the National Marine Fisheries Service.