This chapter explores one of the most important new frontiers in medicine—namely, the new genetics—addressing the issues of identity and free will that genetics raises in new ways. It then uses the case of a woman with “the breast cancer gene” as an example of how genetic testing poses excruciating, new questions to the women affected and their families. Aside from the practical questions of what to do when faced with such a diagnosis, does this and the other Ashkenazi Jewish genetic diseases serve as a basis for the “discrimination, stigmatization, and marginalization” of Jews generally? Should Jews and others think of Jews as a “sick” people? For Jews, of course, such discussion of eugenics has a painful past in both the United States and in Nazi Germany. This is complicated yet further by the fact that in some cases, as with the breast cancer gene, the presence of the gene does not guarantee that the woman will have cancer but only adds to the probability of that happening. What, then, if anything, should be done with such a diagnosis? Furthermore, the availability of pre-natal testing for genetic diseases could easily create expectations in the future that families with a history of a particular genetic disease be tested for it, and if they bear a child with the disease, they may be seen as morally delinquent to both the child and society. The analysis brings Jewish concepts and values to bear on these questions.
This chapter discusses Jewish environmental ethics. It focuses on what two central biblical stories—the Garden of Eden and the Flood—tell us about Jewish ecological ethics as the Torah itself tells those stories, and as the later rabbis interpreted and expanded them, with special concern for the emerging ethics of Eco-Judaism. In so doing, the chapter illustrates how the Jewish tradition uses midrash, the interpretation of texts and their literary nuances, to discover meanings in sacred texts that make them ever relevant to us in changing times and circumstances. It briefly develops one of the Torah's laws on ecology, and an emerging interest on the part of some Jews to understand God differently to reflect our current ecological understanding of life as one integrated whole, in order to demonstrate how Jewish law and theology are relevant to ecology.
Norbert M. Samuelson
This article discusses the role of science in Judaism using familiar terms in unfamiliar ways, such as creation, revelation, redemption, God, world, humanity, belief, wisdom, philosophy, and science. Judaism is the formal expression of the faith of the Jewish people from its origins in the land of Israel almost 4,000 years ago to the present. Judaism and Christianity share a common textual origin; much of what they believe at least shares a common religious terminology. Furthermore, the centre for Jewish intellectual life for at least the past 500 years has been in Western European Christian civilization. However, Jewish intellectual development took place over more than 1,000 years, in lands where the dominant religion became Islam, and where Christianity consequently had little importance.
This article shows how science and medicine, as practiced by influential researchers and physicians in Nazi Germany, were also among the enablers of the Holocaust. It explores a disturbing paradox that remains at the centre of research in this area of Holocaust studies: National Socialism's aim to destroy Jews and other ‘inferior’ groups was legitimated and promoted by respected members of one of the world's preeminent scientific communities. This reality raises a vexing question: Was there such a thing as Nazi science, and, if so, what were its defining features? Investigation of those issues reveals how Nazi authorities harnessed the efforts of scientists and physicians, not only to fuel Germany's war machine and to advance its prestige abroad, but also to achieve the regime's ideological goals and to implement many of its most radical racialist policies.