Music making and leisure in the digital age are challenging and exciting for various reasons. For example, someone who may not be a specialist in music can create music, such as the laptop musician. This chapter explores why the amateur laptop musician participates in making music for leisure. The concept of the amateur musician, as well as the amateur laptop musician is examined. The appeal of amateur laptop musicians is considered: are they demonstrating their virtual music collection, or are they gaining a skill in making music? Music that has been composed and performed on a laptop has resulted in mixed reactions from the producers, consumers, and audience. Therefore, this chapter discusses whether the amateur laptop musician can be considered a serious musician and whether laptop music has changed our perception on music and performance in culture and society.
People are making music at their leisure and publishing it online. YouTube has provided a space for musicians to publish multitrack music videos, join collective musical ensembles, and collaboratively perform with others. This chapter explores three trends of how musicians are creating music videos and forming virtual ensembles and music making communities: they are showing off their skills through music videos; they are creating videos to join large collective multitrack ensembles of hundreds or even thousands of others; and they are actively collaborating with small groups to create mediated performances. Collective and collaborative music making on the Internet are not only happening among grassroots amateur musicians, but also through educational and commercial institutions. Music making on the Internet allows for global interactions and collaboration, where people come together and enjoy music recreationally, unbound by time and space.
Jared O'Leary and Evan Tobias
This chapter is concerned with the diverse ways that people engage with music or sound within, through, and around video games. It begins with a review of literature on games as a leisure activity and sonic space, followed by highlighting various frameworks of participatory cultures. The bulk of the chapter connects these participatory culture frameworks with examples of engagement in sonic participatory cultures and sonic participation within, through, and around video games. Although these categories of sonic participation are divided into three sections, the chapter concludes with a discussion on the overlapping nature of sonic participation and implications for leisure as sonic participation.