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‘A Low Dishonest Decade’?: War and Peace in the 1930s  

Anthony Adamthwaite

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Sep 2014
This analysis of the origins of the Second World War in Europe challenges several key ideas of the historiography: the ‘thirty years war’ thesis, the notion of a European civil war, and ... More

‘America’ and Europe, 1914–1945  

D. W. Ellwood

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2014
The First World War cost Europe the leadership of the world. But the United States of Woodrow Wilson was not ready to take its place. The 1920s brought Europe to a crossroads where mass ... More

Axis Imperialism in the Second World War  

Shelley Baranowski

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2014
Common characteristics and objectives united the Axis alliance, composed of Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, and imperial Japan. All three were ‘latecomers’ to the great power rivalries of the ... More

Belle Époque: Europe before 1914  

Alan Sked

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Oct 2014
Did Europe’s ‘age of catastrophe’ (1914–1945) represent a break with the past or did it amplify the tensions of the preceding era? Was it a ‘parenthesis’ or a ‘revelation’? Historians have ... More

Bolshevism Debated, 1921–1932  

Anne E. Gorsuch

Online publication date:
Jan 2015
Focusing on the transnational flow and exchange of ideas, rather than on divisions and borders, this chapter emphasizes the ways in which early debates about ‘Sovietness’ related to ... More

Bolshevism enforced, 1917–1921  

Erik Landis

Online publication date:
Dec 2013
How could the Bolsheviks exert control over Russia between October 1917 and 1921 when the Provisional Government had failed to do so after the February Revolution? This chapter reassesses ... More

Business and Industry  

Philip Ollerenshaw

Print publication date:
Mar 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This chapter examines the evolution of business and industry in Ireland since the eighteenth century. Manufacturing industry, together with financial services, is discussed alongside some ... More

Colonized and Colonizers: Ireland in the British Empire  

Stephen Howe

Print publication date:
Mar 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This chapter attempts a broad historical and historiographical survey of relations between Irish history and that of the British Empire—both of Ireland as subject to English, then British ... More

Confederation and Union, 1641–60  

Jane Ohlmeyer

Print publication date:
Mar 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
The 1640s and 1650s were defining decades in Irish history. The 1641 rebellion played a crucial role in shaping the triple Stuart monarchy during the seventeenth century and triggered a ... More

De Valera’s Ireland, 1932–58  

Diarmaid Ferriter

Print publication date:
Mar 2014
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
Following defeat in the civil war of 1922–23, Irish republicans formed a new political party, Fianna Fáil, in 1926. By 1932, Fianna Fáil, under the leadership of Eamon de Valera, achieved ... More

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