This chapter focuses on the absence of certain marginal groups from the United Nations’ Women, Peace, and Security Agenda and suggests correctives to those exclusions. The chapter discusses how men and boys as victims of sexual and gender-based violence have been erased in this agenda, and the consequences of this erasure. It challenges the assumptions of militarized masculinity as a uniformly shared identity among conflict-engaged men. It also looks at the outcome of pregnancies resulting from wartime rape and shows how children born of rape are presented and treated in their communities. The chapter draws on research conducted in Peru and Colombia and shows the necessity of understanding both the perpetration and experience of violence in nuanced ways.
Henry R. Nau
There are four standard American foreign policy traditions, and they have existed since the beginning of the republic. The traditions include isolationists/nationalists like George Washington and Andrew Jackson; realists like Alexander Hamilton and Teddy Roosevelt; conservative internationalists like Thomas Jefferson and Ronald Reagan; and liberal internationalists like Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Roosevelt. Rooted in both the history and the logic of the American experience, the traditions are indispensable to ensure that America considers all of the elements of a changing world in meeting global challenges.
This article analyses the relationship between cities and higher levels of government. It explains the theoretical perspectives on intergovernmental relations, and examines the relationship between cities and higher levels of government in Europe and North America. The article provides evidence suggesting that globalization, regionalization, and regulation are important factors affecting intergovernmental relations and the position of cities in countries such as the United States, Canada, and Australia, as well as in developing countries.
Nils Gilman, Doug Randall, and Peter Schwartz
Climate change represents a unique and novel security threat: it has the capacity to devastate human civilization if not humanity as a biological species, yet it is not produced by enemies intending to do harm to a particular state. The complexity in it makes it challenging for policy makers to assess climate change threats and consequently to prioritize resources for countering them. This article provides a clear framework for analyzing the full range of security threats posed by climate change, with a view to determining appropriate governmental policy responses. It suggests that most climate change-related security threats pertain to vital systems and population security, and only secondarily (that is, more remotely in time) to sovereign state security. The most immediate security threats posed by climate change will involve acute insults to and chronic compromising of critical infrastructure, including energy production and delivery systems, transportation networks, agriculture, and water supplies.
Timothy Doyle and Sanjay Chaturvedi
This article is concerned with one subcategory of the broader climate debate: the climate refugee. It uses the IPCC's (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) three climate change-related categories of human migration or population displacement — drought incidence, increased cyclone (hurricanes and typhoons) intensity and sea-level rise — to initially describe how this phenomenon is usually presented and categorized. The very concept of climate refugee is one, which is firmly entrenched in the literature of international relations. This article questions the validity of the climate refugee category, arguing that far from providing succor and solace to the most vulnerable communities within the global South, the climate refugee is a subject of securitization. Furthermore, this article introduces three theoretical frames: realist, liberal, and critical frameworks and use them as a means of coming to terms with diverse prescriptive positions, advocating very different approaches to both mitigation and adaption strategies to alleviate climate displacement and migration.
Naureen Chowdhury Fink and Alison Davidian
This chapter analyses the gender dimension of terrorism and counterterrorism efforts. It explores women’s roles as both supporters and preventers of terrorism. It tracks the increasing incorporation of gender in the counterterrorism strategy of the United Nations and the growing focus on the intersections between the Women, Peace, and Security (WPS) and countering terrorism agendas. The chapter suggests that the WPS Agenda and the countering violent extremism program are convergent and complementary. At the same time, counterterrorism measures have had gendered collateral effects and continue to utilize gender stereotypes. The chapter provides suggestions for what a more gender-sensitive approach would mean for counterterrorism efforts.
This chapter places the critical analysis of global health in wider intellectual and political perspective, situating critical thinking in relation to the philosophical idea of Enlightenment and ensuing debates about the nature of power, knowledge, and freedom. After a brief genealogy of critical thought, the chapter considers some of the main sources of critical thinking in global health and provides a brief survey of critical takes on health in the era of globalisation. It then considers three influential varieties of critique—of political economy, of representation, and of biopower—while touching on other critical perspectives, including feminism and anticolonial thought. As a way of prompting further reflection, the concluding section of the chapter considers recent debates about the problems of the critical enterprise itself.
John A. Cloud and Damian Leader
This chapter explains the history and role of diplomacy in advancing U.S. interests. The State Department is discussed as the primary actor in American diplomacy. The rise of multilateral diplomacy in the 20th century is examined along with the continued applicability of bilateral approaches. The State Department’s role in forming and implementing policy, in coordination with other government agencies, is outlined as well as its role in development assistance, consular affairs, and public diplomacy. The increased role of transnational issues, including human rights, religious freedom, arms control, and nonproliferation is outlined. The structure, funding and career paths of Foreign Service officers is examined, and the increasing use of diplomats alongside the U.S. military in combat zones in recent decades. The chapter highlights the limited resources that the United States commits to diplomacy when compared with military activities.
‘The South’ for the purposes of the UNFCCC, has come to mean a diverse assemblage of 150 states. It is home to the overwhelming majority of the world's poor, and is the locus of the world's most profound development challenges. Even while the South witnesses an acceleration of economic growth in some regions, its average individual income is still only one-sixth that of the average Annex I citizen. It is against those backdrops that the South, in spite of its diversity, has hung together as a coherent force within the UNFCCC. The South does not advance a single coherent and consistently articulated discourse. Nevertheless, as this article explains, certain arguments and persistent themes do resonate deeply within the many Southern discourses, and thus arise in various forms in the rhetoric and strategies of the South. The objective of this article is to outline those fundamental commonalities of the Southern discourses.
Kerry A. Chase
Economic actors organize to influence public policy to their advantage. Geography factors into this process because the spatial distribution of economic endowments can shape what groups want, how well they organize, and how strongly their interests are represented. Political economy scholarship has long appreciated that interest-group politics has spatial dimensions, but space and place have only recently entered research designs systematically. Existing literature differs over the geography of collective action: some find that groups advance their interests best when members are concentrated—in close proximity or closely contested electorates—while others conclude that dispersion is more beneficial, leaving the advantages of geographic concentration and electoral dispersion unresolved. Another issue is the conditions under which geography cuts a line of cleavage between domestic coalitions. With advances in geographic software systems and proliferation of geocoded data, geography is poised to become a more central focus of political economy research.