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Addressing Local Fiscal Disparities  

Tracy M. Gordon

Print publication date:
Dec 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The United States is considered a highly decentralized country. More recently, American federalism has been in a state of flux. At the same time, decentralization has been on the rise ... More

Africa’s Urbanization: Challenges and Opportunities  

M. Freire, S. Lall, and D. Leipziger

Print publication date:
Jul 2015
Online publication date:
Apr 2015
This chapter examines Africa’s urbanization and the challenges and opportunities it presents, with emphasis on what it will take to make African cities efficient, sustainable, and ... More

The Agricultural Sector  

Carlos José Caetano Bacha

This chapter analyzes the evolution of agriculture in Brazil from the early sixteenth century until the second decade of the twenty-first century. It focuses on seven domestic and external ... More

Anti-Poverty Transfers and Poverty Reduction  

Armando Barrientos

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This chapter examines the role that public policy initiatives—specifically anti-poverty transfers—have played in the reduction of poverty and inequality in Brazil. A number of anti-poverty ... More

Antitrust and Competition Policy in Brazil  

Eduardo Pontual Ribeiro, Camila Pires-Alves, and Luis Carlos D. Prado

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This chapter presents and analyzes Brazil’s competition policy on merger control and the abuse of market power. Its role as an important Brazilian public policy derives from a combination ... More

Are Large Metropolitan Areas Still Viable?  

Edwin S. Mills

This chapter examines the functions of and prospects for large metropolitan areas (MAs) in the United States. It argues that the high cost of transporting people and goods is a necessary, ... More

Assessing State-Level Science and Technology Policies: North Carolina’s Experience with SBIR State Matching Grants  

John Hardin, Lukas Brun, and Lauren Lanahan

Print publication date:
Sep 2015
Online publication date:
Oct 2015
State government R&D expenditures play a critical role in supporting innovation in the United States. This chapter discusses the growing role of US state governments in supporting R&D ... More

Brazil’s Agricultural Modernization and Embrapa  

Geraldo B. Martha Jr. and Eliseu Alves

Brazilian agriculture reinvented itself by targeting a science-based approach. Embrapa, the research arm of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, is recognized as key in this process. A ... More

Brazil’s Import-Substitution Industrialization  

Werner Baer

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This chapter examines the development of Brazil’s inward-oriented industrialization strategy, commonly termed “import-substitution industrialization” (ISI). Originating in the 1930s under ... More

Brazil’s Macroeconomic Policy Institutions, Quasi-Stagnation, and the Interest Rate–Exchange Rate Trap  

Luiz Carlos Bresser-Perreira

Print publication date:
Oct 2018
Online publication date:
Aug 2018
This chapter examines the evolution of macroeconomic policy and institutions over the long term and the ways in which they have influenced the growth path of the Brazilian economy. It ... More

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