Harold O. Fried and Loren W. Tauer
This article explores how well an individual manages his or her own talent to achieve high performance in an individual sport. Its setting is the Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA). The order-m approach is explained. Additionally, the data and the empirical findings are presented. The inputs measure fundamental golfing athletic ability. The output measures success on the LPGA tour. The correlation coefficient between earnings per event and the ability to perform under pressure is 0.48. The careers of golfers occur on the front end of the age distribution. There is a classic trade-off between the inevitable deterioration in the mental ability to handle the pressure and experience gained with time. The ability to perform under pressure peaks at age 37.
Brenda A. Barnes
This article first introduces some essential airline pricing and revenue management (PRM) terms and concepts, and then briefly reviews historical events that have shaped the field of airline PRM. It discusses current PRM practices, including strategy, tactics, processes, distribution, and systems, and, finally, highlights trends that will impact the future practice of PRM. The article focuses on the current practices of the major US airlines, which include Delta Air Lines, United-Continental Airlines, American Airlines, and US Airways and account for approximately 75 per cent of US industry revenue; and the practices of the largest low-cost carriers, such as AirTran, JetBlue, and Southwest Airlines.
Ramon P. DeGennaro
This article focuses on a class of angel investors that lies between venture capitalists and the typical informal individual angel investor. It discusses why people become angel investors. It then covers angel investors in groups and discusses group traits and their advantages. The section after that discusses angel investments and the investment process. The article discusses characteristics of a good deal, the financial parameters of an investment, and the angel's exit from the investment. A review of the literature on expected returns on angel investments and the problems with measuring them follows. The final section summarizes.
David Evans and Richard Schmalensee
This chapter provides a survey of the economics literature on multisided platforms with particular focus on competition policy issues, including market definition, mergers, monopolization, and coordinated behavior. It provides a survey of the general industrial organization theory of multisided platforms and then considers various issues concerning the application of antitrust analysis to multisided platform businesses. It shows that it is not possible to know whether standard economic models, often relied on for antitrust analysis, apply to multisided platforms without explicitly considering the existence of multiple customer groups with interdependent demand. It summarizes many theoretical and empirical papers that demonstrate that a number of results for single-sided firms, which are the focus of much of the applied antitrust economics literature, do not apply directly to multisided platforms.
D. Daniel Sokol and Rosa Abrantes-Metz
Both theoretical and empirical work in a number of different fields, including economics, accounting, finance, organizational theory, and sociology provides important insights indicating that a firm is not merely a single entity in its actions. Rather, a firm is made up of a number of various components, each of which has its own incentives that shape firm behavior. This chapter reviews both the antitrust and the non-antitrust literatures on compliance and corporate governance to provide a clearer picture of the extant literature and the theoretical and empirical gaps within the antitrust literature to better inform antitrust policy on detecting cartels. This chapter explores the scholarship both within and outside of antitrust to better understand internal detection of wrongdoing and improved compliance in the antitrust cartel context.
Keith N. Hylton
Since China has modeled its antitrust regime on that of the EU, there are essentially two antitrust regime types: the United States and the EU. This chapter is a brief comparative study of the two regimes. I focus on three categories in which fundamental differences are observed: enforcement, legal standards, and procedure. Within each of the three categories, I narrow the focus to a specific illustrative feature. With respect to enforcement, the EU imposes gain-based penalties, while the United States imposes harm-based penalties. In predation law, the United States has a marginal cost standard and the EU has an average cost standard. With respect to procedure, the United States is a common law system, while the EU’s procedure is closer to the civil law system in its allocation of power between the courts and the enforcement agency. These differences have profound implications for the welfare consequences of global antitrust enforcement.
Daniel L. Rubinfield
Antitrust litigation has been experiencing a growth spurt in the past several decades as the result of expanding public enforcement worldwide, active private enforcement in the United States, and initial forays into private enforcement in other areas of the world. Given the large costs to the parties flowing from antitrust trials, it is not surprising that a vast majority of both private and public enforcement actions are resolved through settlement. This essay sketches out the conceptual framework underlying the settlement-trial decision. It also describes some of the empirical evidence on the settlement of both public and private antitrust cases and in the process offers commentary on a number of important policy issues.
Daniel Spulber and Christopher Yoo
Network industries, including the Internet, have shown significant growth, substantial competition, and rapid innovation. This chapter examines antitrust policy towards network industries. The discussion considers the policy implications of various concepts in the economics of networks: natural monopoly, network economic effects, vertical exclusion, and dynamic efficiency. The analysis finds that antitrust policymakers should not presume that network industries are more subject to monopolization than other industries. Deregulation and the strength of competition in network industries have removed justifications for structural separation as a remedy. Also, the chapter argues that deregulation and competition have effectively eliminated support for application of the essential facilities doctrine. Antitrust policy in network industries should be guided by considerations of dynamic efficiency.
Andrea Prat and Wouter Dessein
By bringing together multiple workers, organizations can perform tasks that are outside the reach of any individual. In order to be productive, however, workers must coordinate their actions. Often this requires communicating information that is dispersed throughout the organization, but communication is time-consuming and costly. As Arrow (1974) noted, given the importance of communication both as an opportunity and as a cost, organizations will strive to optimize information flows between workers. As a result, communication patterns within an organization will not be random but will be shaped by the goals of the organization. An attention network describes how communication flows and, as a result, how decisions are made within the organization. This chapter reviews optimal and equilibrium attention networks.
This article gives some historical background on auctions and describes the different varieties of auction, such as English, Dutch, Japanese, candle, silent, sealed-bid, Vickery, and simultaneous ascending auctions. It summarizes the most important results from auction theory, including the optimality of the Vickery auction and the revelation principle. The article also describes some of the current topics in auction research, including approaches to combinatorial auctions.