Erwin Dekker and Arjo Klamer
This chapter argues that the art of phronesis is central to doing the right thing as an economist. Phronesis, or practical wisdom, is what we practice when we deliberate, weigh values, take into account our feelings and those of others, consider the circumstances, and grope for the right thing to do. Central to phronesis is figuring out the goods to strive for and the appropriate means to realize those goods. We argue that the goods can be categorized into personal goods, social goods, societal goods, and transcendental goods. An important choice that any economist faces is which conversation to join, to which part of economics he wishes to contribute. We argue that situating ourselves in a university department, in the search for truth and truth only, is an important moral choice, with consequences for the goods we can realize.
Enno Mammen, Byeong U. Park, and Melanie Schienle
This chapter gives an overview over smooth backfitting-type estimators in additive models. Moreover, it illustrates their wide applicability in models closely related to additive models such as nonparametric regression with dependent error variables where the errors can be transformed to white noise by a linear transformation, nonparametric regression with repeatedly measured data, nonparametric panels with fixed effects, simultaneous nonparametric equation models, and non- and semiparametric autoregression and GARCH models. This chapter also discusses extensions to varying coefficient models, additive models with missing observations, and the case of nonstationary covariates.
This chapter considers the psychological, methodological, and normative paths taken by behavioral law and economics (“BLE”) and alternative paths that BLE might have taken, and might still take. The counterfactual BLE imagined here focuses on performing behavioral analyses of legal problems rather than promoting the heuristics and bias view of judgment and decision-making to compete with law and economics’ rational actor model. This change in focus would give priority to empirical studies in which particular legal institutions and specific legal tasks are simulated or studied in situ rather than to studies of abstract and general judgment and decision-making problems that may provide more theoretical bang but have less clear applied payoff in specific legal contexts.
Irene van Staveren
This chapter analyzes the financial crisis from three ethical perspectives. It starts from utilitarianism, the ethical theory underlying neoclassical economics, which has partly driven the crisis. The best-known alternative is deontology, a rule-based ethics. This has failed to prevent the crisis because the dominant utilitarianism has undermined professionals’ belief in universal rules. The third approach is the ethics of care, a relational ethics grounded in moral commitments between people in their particular contexts, which emerged from research on families, households, and healthcare. There are two case studies that illustrate that the ethics of care is not necessarily limited to micro practices shaped by women’s traditional roles as caregivers. One case is on “caring finance” in Rabobank, and the other is on gender differences in financial behavior. They illustrate that the ethics of care deserves more attention from economists.
David Evans and Richard Schmalensee
This chapter provides a survey of the economics literature on multisided platforms with particular focus on competition policy issues, including market definition, mergers, monopolization, and coordinated behavior. It provides a survey of the general industrial organization theory of multisided platforms and then considers various issues concerning the application of antitrust analysis to multisided platform businesses. It shows that it is not possible to know whether standard economic models, often relied on for antitrust analysis, apply to multisided platforms without explicitly considering the existence of multiple customer groups with interdependent demand. It summarizes many theoretical and empirical papers that demonstrate that a number of results for single-sided firms, which are the focus of much of the applied antitrust economics literature, do not apply directly to multisided platforms.
D. Daniel Sokol and Rosa Abrantes-Metz
Both theoretical and empirical work in a number of different fields, including economics, accounting, finance, organizational theory, and sociology provides important insights indicating that a firm is not merely a single entity in its actions. Rather, a firm is made up of a number of various components, each of which has its own incentives that shape firm behavior. This chapter reviews both the antitrust and the non-antitrust literatures on compliance and corporate governance to provide a clearer picture of the extant literature and the theoretical and empirical gaps within the antitrust literature to better inform antitrust policy on detecting cartels. This chapter explores the scholarship both within and outside of antitrust to better understand internal detection of wrongdoing and improved compliance in the antitrust cartel context.
Keith N. Hylton
Since China has modeled its antitrust regime on that of the EU, there are essentially two antitrust regime types: the United States and the EU. This chapter is a brief comparative study of the two regimes. I focus on three categories in which fundamental differences are observed: enforcement, legal standards, and procedure. Within each of the three categories, I narrow the focus to a specific illustrative feature. With respect to enforcement, the EU imposes gain-based penalties, while the United States imposes harm-based penalties. In predation law, the United States has a marginal cost standard and the EU has an average cost standard. With respect to procedure, the United States is a common law system, while the EU’s procedure is closer to the civil law system in its allocation of power between the courts and the enforcement agency. These differences have profound implications for the welfare consequences of global antitrust enforcement.