Thomas J. Holt and Adam M. Bossler
Criminological research exploring the phenomena of cybercrime and technology-enabled offending has increased dramatically over the last two decades, examining changes in offender behavior, victim characteristics, and the applicability of existing theories for these crimes. There is no systematic assessment of this literature or the gaps in our knowledge that require careful measurement and analysis. This study explores the evolution of the termcybercrimeand the range of activities that fall into this category of offending, including computer hacking, malware, piracy, fraud, pornography, prostitution, cyberbullying, cyberstalking, and cyberterrorism. The challenges inherent in measuring these offenses and pertinent theoretical and empirical issues are examined in depth.
Elżbieta M. Goździak
This essay examines the challenges and dilemmas involved in conducting empirical research on human trafficking, particularly studies involving survivors of human trafficking. The discussion concentrates on cross-border trafficking of adults and children for labor and sexual exploitation. Issues of sex and gender, agency and vulnerability, and criminal justice responses are explored; historical antecedents of contemporary legal frameworks related to trafficking and smuggling as well as the relationships between smuggling and trafficking are highlighted; and the gendered dimension of the anti-trafficking discourse is emphasized. The essay concludes with a call for future research that goes beyond advocacy-focused studies that discuss women trafficked for sexual exploitation to include a broader array of issues and populations and an emphasis on empirical data and research.