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The Death Penalty  

Randall McGowen

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Although the death penalty often appears a timeless question, the last three centuries have witnessed dramatic changes in the frequency and organization of capital punishment in Europe and ... More

General Deterrence  

Robert Apel and Daniel S. Nagin

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article begins with a discussion of key concepts of deterrence. Section II turns to empirical research on general deterrence. It considers the deterrent effect of the penultimate and ... More

Legitimacy and Lawful Policing  

Sanja Kutnjak Ivković

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article is organized as follows. Section I focuses on the concept of police legitimacy, exploring it from the police agency perspective (i.e., why people obey the authority), and ... More

Mercy and Parole in Anglo-American Criminal Justice Systems from the Eighteenth Century to the Twenty-First Century  

Carolyn Strange

Print publication date:
May 2016
Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Mercy’s long association with the whims of emperors and monarchs altered with the emergence of republics and democracies in the modern era. Over the nineteenth century mercy became ... More

Norbert Elias, the Civilizing Process, and Punishment  

John Pratt

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
The way a society punishes its offenders has become a yardstick by which it can be judged as civilized. In civilized societies, for example, punishment on the human body has become ... More

Perceptual Deterrence Theory  

Ray Paternoster and Ronet Bachman

Print publication date:
Nov 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
According to deterrence theory in criminology, we are affected by both the costs and rewards that are consequent to our behavior. In other words, we tend to behave based on the expectation ... More

Punishment  

Michael Tonry

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article discusses important ways of thinking about punishment. Section I discusses the history and recent past of work by philosophers and legal theorists. Section II surveys major ... More

Punishment, Justice, and Emotions  

Henrique Carvalho and Anastasia Chamberlen

Online publication date:
Apr 2016
This essay discusses the relation among emotions, punishment, and justice. It reviews theoretical scholarship on the role of punishment in society and sociological research on emotions, ... More

Reassurance, Reinforcement, and Legitimacy  

Matt Matravers

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article considers the point of systems of criminal justice; reviews Émile Durkheim's theory and its application to contemporary societies; reviews the evidence concerning the ways in ... More

Reparation and Restoration  

Kathleen Daly and Gitana Proietti-Scifoni

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article begins with an overview of the varied meanings of reparation, restoration, and restorative justice, as they are applied in domestic and international contexts of law and ... More

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