Paige H. Fisher, Susan Nolan, and Magdalena Galazyn
This chapter offers recommendations, evidence-based when possible, on teaching abnormal psychology in an effective and engaging manner. In the first section, we address issues related to the content of an Abnormal Psychology course. We outline the traditional content areas, as well as current topics that are often underemphasized, such as controversies with diagnosis, and international and cross-cultural issues. In the second section, we provide an overview of pedagogical tools that are particularly relevant for an abnormal psychology course, including the use of case material, role-play, and simulation; we provide suggestions on how to use these tools to create a stimulating and interactive classroom. In the third section, we outline ethical issues that can emerge when teaching abnormal psychology, such as informed consent and classroom management of sensitive topics, and offer suggestions for creating an ethical classroom environment.
Richard Y. Bourhis and Annie Montreuil
This chapter provides a conceptual framework for examining the delivery of bilingual healthcare for linguistic minorities in Canada’s Bilingual Belt. First, the chapter provides an overview of the ethnolinguistic vitality framework accounting for the sociostructural factors affecting the strength of minority and majority language communities within multilingual countries. Second, the interactive acculturation model (IAM) helps account for relations between high- and low-vitality group speakers whose intercultural relations may be harmonious, problematic, or conflictual. Third, the chapter provides a case study of a pluralist setting that offers three distinct bilingual healthcare systems for French and English communities in Canada’s Bilingual Belt. While the delivery of bilingual healthcare is cost neutral relative to unilingual healthcare systems, at issue is whether minority language patients achieve better health outcomes when they are cared for in their own language than in the language of the dominant majority.
Kou Murayama, Andrew J. Elliot, and Ron Friedman
In this chapter, we describe the achievement goal construct's origin and highlight noteworthy developments in the literature. We then use this historical overview to provide the context for several key theoretical and empirical issues surrounding the current achievement goal approach, including the precise definition of achievement goals, the possible inclusion of additional goals into the achievement goal approach, the measurement of achievement goals, the debates surrounding performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals, contextual effects on achievement goals, and the consideration of methodological expansion.
Dan Morrow and Renato F.L. Azevedo
This chapter reviews literature related to relationships between expertise and aging. It first considers how experts excel on domain-relevant tasks despite cognitive limitations and how these expertise-related advantages develop, which suggest ways in which adults can offset age-related cognitive constraints to maintain performance in later years. The chapter then reviews studies that examine two issues about how expertise influences performance as we age. First, to what extent high-level experts can retain superior levels of performance as they age, an issue often addressed in fairly narrow domains such as games, sports, and music. A second, broader issue concerns whether the benefits or costs associated with domain-general as well as domain-specific knowledge change with age. This second issue is central to lifespan theory: To what extent does knowledge and skill associated with experience offset age-related declines in abilities and function.
Bradley L. Kirkman, Cristina B. Gibson, and Kwanghyun Kim
Research on virtual teams continues to grow as this form of teaming is increasingly adopted by organizations worldwide. To comprehensively analyze the growing literature on virtual teams, we reviewed 197 articles published between 1986 and 2008. We organize our review both by level of analysis (i.e., individual, group, and organization) and by relevance to the input-emergent state-process-output (IEPO) framework, yielding 12 theoretically meaningful categories of research. We summarize and synthesize this research over the last 22 years in each of these 12 areas, and we conclude with directions for future research related to five overarching themes: (a) the conceptualization of virtuality; (b) team development; (c) virtual team leadership; (d) levels of analysis; and (e) multidisciplinary approaches.
Barbara Chamberlin and Ann Maloney
Exergames, or games that encourage physical activity, have several documented benefits for users, including increase of daily physical activity, and the potential for game players to reach moderate and even vigorous levels of activity. In addition to physiological impacts, exergames can affect social and psychosocial attributes, such as interest in exergaming, adherence, and motivation. Although research on this new field is in the early stages, this chapter summarizes research findings, giving particular attention to exergaming’s potential in medical, school, and community programs. Based on that research and on their own experience in working with exergames users, the authors share recommendations on best uses of exergames, design guidelines for exergame developers, and areas for future research.
Marc J. Tasse
Adaptive behavior consists of those skills learned throughout development and performed in response to the expectations placed on us from our community and society at large. Adaptive skills become increasingly more complex with age. Adaptive behavior is defined as the collection of conceptual, social, and practical skills learned by people to enable them to function in their everyday lives. Adaptive behavior is a required diagnostic criterion of all systems defining intellectual and developmental disabilities. Several standardized adaptive behavior scales described in the chapter can be used to assess a person’s adaptive behavior for the purpose of either making a diagnosis and/or identifying the educational or interventional goals for the purpose of teaching the person skills that will contribute to independence and improved quality of life.
Tamra Pearson d'Estrée
Conflict, defined as a perceived divergence of interests, goals, values or needs, can be both constructive and destructive (Curle, 1971; Deutsch, 1973; Rubin, Pruitt, & Kim, 1994). However, intractable conflicts become mires of human misery that trap parties in spirals of recrimination, dehumanization, and violence. What is needed to change this dynamic is intervention into the interaction itself, such that one can reperceive the other, reassess priorities and options, and design joint solutions. This chapter discusses interactive problem-solving as one method useful for creating both new intergroup attitudes and joint solutions. This social-psychologically informed approach is uniquely positioned to engage conflicting parties in both relational change and concrete solution building, with the added potential to impact structural injustices that anchor intractable conflicts.
Mukul Bhalla, Diane L. Finley, and Radhika Krishnadas
This chapter discusses whether institutions of higher education in general and departments of psychology in particular are meeting the needs of nontraditional students, who do not follow the traditional path to postsecondary education due to variables such as age, socioeconomic status, work, and family responsibilities. We discuss three categories of nontraditional student characteristics (Cross, 1981): dispositional (e.g., learning styles), situational (e.g., time constraints), and institutional (campus climate). We also suggest strategies for pedagogical and institutional practices (based on classic and current research), such as emphasis on experiential learning, online delivery of courses and services, flexibility in providing mentoring and advising services, inclusion of prior learning credits that can help increase persistence and graduation rates for adult students and other nontraditional learners while also enhancing the learning environment and opportunities for all students.
Kelly B. Haskard-Zolnierek and Summer L. Williams
This chapter outlines the ways in which depression and other mental health issues influence adherence and health-behavior change. Patient adherence and health-behavior change are defined and described. Common mental health issues including depression and anxiety are described as well as the prevalence of nonadherence to treatment for these conditions. Next, comorbidity of physical and mental health issues are discussed, such as depression co-occurring with various chronic diseases, providing evidence of the effects of mental health on adherence and health-behavior change. The mechanisms for the relationship of mental health to adherence and health-behavior change are discussed through the framework of the information-motivation-strategy model, with adherence being affected due to cognitive factors, motivational factors, and resource-related factors. The chapter concludes with a discussion of what health-care professionals can do to address and reduce this barrier to adherence and health-behavior change.