Marina Doucerain, Norman Segalowitz, and Andrew G. Ryder
This article discusses the importance of clear and precise conceptualizations of acculturation as well as the need for consistencies in definition, operationalization, and measurement. More specifically, it argues for an expanded acculturation research toolkit that does not rely too heavily on self-report acculturation scales. The article begins with an overview of the state of affairs with respect to acculturation conceptualizations and methods, paying particular attention to the unidimensional, bidimensional, and multidimensional frameworks of psychological acculturation. It then considers ways in which commonly used definitions and methods of acculturation can be used more intelligently. It also describes alternative methods for researchers interested in moving beyond self-report rating scales, a tiered approach to acculturation research, and method-specific health considerations. Finally, it offers some recommendations aimed at helping the field of acculturation and health research move forward.
Elaine D. Pulakos, Rose A. Mueller-Hanson, and Johnathan K. Nelson
In this chapter, we examine issues relevant to incorporating trainability and adaptive performance into selection research. We adopt the definition of adaptive performance suggested by Pulakos et al. (2000) that specified eight dimensions defining this construct. One of these dimensions, leaning new tasks, technology, and procedures, was used to define trainability. We then examine recent models of adaptive performance and training to identify likely predictors of adaptability and trainability and propose a method for determining when and where these criteria should be included and explicitly predicted in selection research. We examine the pros and cons associated with different criterion measures and recommend that typical rating measures potentially supplemented by lower-fidelity work sample measures be incorporated in selection research. Finally, we discuss gaps in the current literature and recommend areas for future research.
Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and John H. Hitchcock
Because of the complexity of mixed analysis, several authors recently have written methodological works that provide either an introductory- or intermediate-level guide to conducting such analyses. Although all of these works have been useful for beginning and emergent mixed researchers, what is lacking are works that describe and illustrate advanced mixed analysis approaches. Thus, in this chapter, we provide a compendium of advanced mixed analysis approaches. In particular, we outline three advanced quantitative-dominant crossover mixed analyses, three advanced qualitative-dominant crossover mixed analyses, and one advanced equal-status crossover mixed analysis. Most of these advanced crossover mixed analyses previously have not been described as a mixed analysis technique in any published work, illustrating the significance and innovation of our chapter.
Larry R. Price
A brief history of imaging neuroscience is presented followed by an introduction to data acquisition using positron emission tomography (PET)and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Next, statistical parametric mapping is introduced in conjunction with random field theory as being fundamental to identifying sites of neural activation. The general linear model is discussed as being foundational for all imaging analyses. Finally, methods for studying functional and effective connectivity such as eigenimage analysis, partial least squares, multivariate autoregressive models, structural equation models, and dynamic causal models are reviewed in light of deterministic and stochastic analytic approaches.
The chapter gives an instruction to event history analysis. The central goals are first to justify why what perhaps must be considered an unusual modeling approach is needed and next to explicate in some detail what the key ideas from probability theory are and how these ideas solve the problems that arise when using more standard techniques such as regression analysis for continuous dependent variables or logit analysis for binary dependent variables. Elaborations for how to take account of measured variables are given. It elaborates on what the dependent variable is in event history analysis, on the framework for repeated event processes, multi-state processes, and continuous-state space processes.
Stephen W. Gilliland and Dirk D. Steiner
Applicant reactions to selection and assessment have developed into a theoretically grounded and productive body of research over the past 20 years. Organizational justice theories provide a valuable foundation for much of this research, but important models have also been developed from test motivation and social psychological perspectives. Research indicates that applicant reactions are strongly related to prehire attitudes and applicant self-perceptions, but not related to most behaviors. Research has also demonstrated substantial consistency in applicant reactions across gender, race, and cultures. Generally, applicants react most favorably toward work sample tests and interviews, negatively toward graphology and honesty tests, and moderately toward cognitive ability tests, biodata, and personality inventories. We conclude by highlighting a number of areas for future research, suggesting that with broader perspectives applicant reactions research can continue to be as productive as it has been in the past.
In the applied world of the practice disciplines, the recognized limitations of conventional science have stimulated a lively and enthusiastic uptake of many of the qualitative research approaches generated over decades of social science scholarship. However, due to significant differences between the nature and motivation between the more theoretical and more applied fields, many applied scholars have been departing from established method to articulate approaches better suited to the questions of the applied world. This chapter considers the evolving relationship between the methods and their disciplinary origins and current trends in the direction of the applied interpretive qualitative research project. Interpretive description is used as a methodological case in point to illustrate the kinds of departures that applied approaches are taking from their ancestral roots as they begin to advance knowledge development within the practical and contextualized realities of their applied contexts.
Multimethod and mixed methods are well suited to prevention research in global health; however, their application has not yet been adequately discussed or demonstrated. This chapter illustrates key opportunities and challenges through focusing on using multimethod and mixed methods for investigating prevention involving migration. It summarizes one large study focused on labor migrants and HIV/AIDS risk and protection to illustrate how innovative strategies combining different forms of knowledge in multimethod and mixed methods can generate more robust and useful findings. Multimethod and mixed methods in prevention research in global health should strategically utilize multiple study elements (investigators, theories, methods, and data) that are most responsive to the central research problems and questions, through existing and new synergies, so as to most appropriately address the key preventive intervention characteristics and contribute to the overall completeness of the knowledge.
Gioia Chilton and Patricia Leavy
Arts-based research (ABR) is a rapidly growing methodological genre. ABR adapts the tenets of the creative arts in social research in order to make that research publicly accessible, evocative, and engaged. This chapter provides a retrospective and prospective overview of the field, including a review of some of the pioneers of ABR, methodological principles, robust examples of ABR within different artistic genres, assessment criteria, and the future of the field.
Jonathan P. Schwartz, Michael Waldo, and Margaret Schwartz Moravec
Assessment is critical to understanding the outcomes and processes inherent in group counseling. However, assessment in groups is often ignored or attempted utilizing measures with poor psychometrics. The purpose of this chapter is to explore the various purposes of assessment in group counseling, followed by a summary of different types of assessment that may be used. Strengths and weaknesses of various assessments and research designs will also be discussed, along with implications for best practice.