Kang Yang Trevor Yu and Daniel M. Cable
Leaders care about applicant reactions to their recruitment and hiring processes due to the profound effect on the organization's future composition and sustained competitive advantage. In addition to causing applicants to select into or out of the organization, recruitment experiences presocialize job seekers about what to expect from the organization (i.e., culture and values) and the job (i.e., required skills and abilities). In this chapter we take a strategic look at recruitment by applying a resource-based view. We argue that firms can use applicant reactions to recruitment and hiring processes to create and sustain competencies that are valuable, rare, and hard to imitate. Recruitment facilitates applicant self-selection because it communicates to them the unique attributes that characterize successful employees in the firm. Drawing upon ideas from person-environment fit, organizational image, and job design, our chapter covers the process and benefits of using the recruitment process to differentially attract a workforce that delivers a consistent and unique product to customers. In this way, recruitment can be a key component of the value creation process that drives a firm's competitive advantage.
Brendan M. Baird, Lindsay Pitzer, Alissa Russell, and Cindy S. Bergeman
This chapter covers a variety of topics related to research methods for studying aging workers. After a review of concepts from life span developmental psychology, the authors explain how Schaie’s (1965) general developmental model can be used to examine the effects of age, cohort, time period, and seniority on workplace behavior. A number of specific research designs are described, including conventional and sequential methods, along with various analytical techniques that contribute to the study of work and aging. Special attention is given to strategies for avoiding problems associated with measurement issues and potential threats to the validity of research findings when planning and conducting a study of aging issues in the workplace. Finally, future directions for research that incorporate experience sampling designs and developmental behavior genetics are presented.
Why Minority Recruiting Doesn’t Often Work, and What Can Be Done About It: Applicant Qualifications and the 4-Group Model of Targeted Recruiting
Daniel A. Newman, Kisha S. Jones, R. Chris Fraley, Julie S. Lyon, and Kevin M. Mullaney
This chapter presents an analytic model for examining the effects of targeted recruiting with respect to two goals: improving diversity and improving job performance/academic performance. Results echo Newman and Lyon’s (2009) suggestion that targeted recruiting for diversity will have little effect on diverse hiring/admissions in typical high-stakes testing conditions, owing to the tendency to attract minority applicants with lower qualifications. This chapter thus illustrates why General Minority Recruiting research that focuses only on R × R two-way interactions ( R ecruiting technique × R ace) has limited or unknown practical implications. Instead, this chapter proposes a new focus on applicant Qualification-Based Minority Recruiting . The new approach specifies a three-way interaction: R × R × Q, or the effect of R ecruiting technique × R ace × applicant Q ualifications in predicting organizational attractiveness/the probability of applying. Along the way, we derive a 4-Group analytic model from a 2 × 2 design that identifies four categories of job applicants by crossing demographic status (minority–majority) with recruiting condition (targeted recruiting intervention vs. no recruiting); and we define four key recruiting parameters by comparing the sizes and job qualifications of these four groups of applicants. This chapter also generally illustrates how to use analytic models of targeted recruiting based on mathematical relationships and Monte Carlo simulations.