Bradley L. Kirkman, Cristina B. Gibson, and Kwanghyun Kim
Research on virtual teams continues to grow as this form of teaming is increasingly adopted by organizations worldwide. To comprehensively analyze the growing literature on virtual teams, we reviewed 197 articles published between 1986 and 2008. We organize our review both by level of analysis (i.e., individual, group, and organization) and by relevance to the input-emergent state-process-output (IEPO) framework, yielding 12 theoretically meaningful categories of research. We summarize and synthesize this research over the last 22 years in each of these 12 areas, and we conclude with directions for future research related to five overarching themes: (a) the conceptualization of virtuality; (b) team development; (c) virtual team leadership; (d) levels of analysis; and (e) multidisciplinary approaches.
Elaine D. Pulakos, Rose A. Mueller-Hanson, and Johnathan K. Nelson
In this chapter, we examine issues relevant to incorporating trainability and adaptive performance into selection research. We adopt the definition of adaptive performance suggested by Pulakos et al. (2000) that specified eight dimensions defining this construct. One of these dimensions, leaning new tasks, technology, and procedures, was used to define trainability. We then examine recent models of adaptive performance and training to identify likely predictors of adaptability and trainability and propose a method for determining when and where these criteria should be included and explicitly predicted in selection research. We examine the pros and cons associated with different criterion measures and recommend that typical rating measures potentially supplemented by lower-fidelity work sample measures be incorporated in selection research. Finally, we discuss gaps in the current literature and recommend areas for future research.
Hanna van Solinge
This chapter provides a summary of developments in retirement adjustment research. The chapter starts with a review of the major theoretical approaches to adjustment to life events in general, and retirement in particular. The second part provides a summary of empirical findings. To organize these findings, a distinction is made between research focusing on the descriptive question regarding the general impact of retirement on the individual, and research posing the explanatory question of why adjustment is more difficult in some cases than in others. The last part highlights future directions that may be fruitful for researchers in this area. Both methodological issues and empirical gaps in the literature are adressed. This chapter seeks to contribute to the understanding of how the loss of work affects successful aging and hopes to offer more insight into the circumstances under which retirement jeopardizes the well-being of older adults.
Bruce J. Avolio and Ketan H. Mhatre
This review tracks the evolution of the theory of authentic leadership from its theoretical conception to more recent empirical research. We begin this chapter by providing an overview of the construct of authenticity and various conceptualizations in the research literature. We follow that by an examination of the theoretical advances that have characterized the field of authentic leadership by outlining the competing models of authentic leadership proposed in prior research literature. Next, we summarize the empirical validation studies of the theory of authentic leadership in an effort to highlight the development that the field of authentic leadership has undergone over the past 6 years. And, finally, we synthesize research findings and use them as a platform for offering suggestions to facilitate future leadership research and practice.
Jerry W. Hedge and Walter C. Borman
The convergence of technological innovations, global aging of the workforce, changing occupational trends, and retirement patterns points to dramatic differences in workplace and workforce perspectives in the decades ahead. This chapter integrates some key issues highlighted in the chapters of this volume, and reflects on the future of work and aging research and application.
Steve W. J. Kozlowski and Bradford S. Bell
Many scholars have observed that the structure of work in contemporary organizations is becoming increasingly team centric and that this structural shift is driven by pressures for organizational adaptation and innovation. This has prompted scholarly interest in the concept of team learning. Unfortunately, despite this rising interest, team learning as an area of theory development and research has been hampered by ongoing conceptual ambiguities and inconsistencies. In particular, learning processes and knowledge outcomes are often not distinguished clearly and are frequently treated interchangeably. Our goal is to articulate a clear conceptualization of team learning as a process and to distinguish team learning processes from team knowledge outcomes. We view this distinction as essential for advancing this important area of inquiry.
Tammy D. Allen and Lillian T. Eby
In this final chapter we offer a summation of some of the major themes contained in this volume with regard to future research needs, including a discussion of work–family theory building, the role of gender in the work–family interface, the diversity of the modern family, family supportive organizational policies and practices, and work-family intervention research. We move beyond summation and review by offering specific new ideas for moving work–family scholarship forward. In doing so we highlight the importance of investing in work–family initiatives that enrich employee lives as well as those that benefit families, organizations, and society at large.
Anthony R. Kovner
I have spent more than a decade trying to get managers and those who study management to use an evidence-based process where interventions to improve performance are concerned. This chapter describes my experiences including teaching a graduate capstone course, writing a text on evidence-based management in health-care, decision making as a board member of a large hospital, and attempting to launch evidence-based management research with practitioners.
This chapter describes my experiences and interpretations of early efforts to promote and practice evidence-based management. It includes my personal experiences, tacit knowledge derived from those experiences, the experiences of others in similar situations, expert opinion, case studies and other relevant information.
Donald M. Truxillo, Lisa M. Finkelstein, Amy C. Pytlovany, and Jade S. Jenkins
People are working longer, with the result that workplaces are becoming older and more age-diverse. For these reasons, workplace age discrimination is of increasing importance. This chapter describes a number of mechanisms that may explain age stereotyping and may lead to workplace age discrimination in the areas of hiring, training, performance appraisal, layoffs and reemployment, and interpersonal treatment. Noting that the growing interest in age at work among researchers and practitioners has led to a number of recent developments, the chapter reviews more recent advances in the field of workplace age discrimination and recommends a number of pathways for future research.
Richard A. Posthuma, María Fernanda Wagstaff, and Michael A. Campion
This chapter analyzes the current state of research on the topic of age stereotypes and age discrimination in the workplace. Recognizing the growing importance of age stereotyping research as the workforces of many countries continue to grow older, this chapter defines and differentiates the important concepts used in this field of research (e.g., age stereotyping, ageism, age discrimination). Specific illustrations of age stereotyping are identified, and it is shown how these stereotypes can have negative impacts on both workers and their employers. The relationship between age stereotyping and age discrimination is discussed with reference to recent court cases. A meta-framework that provides guidance for future research is offered to enhance the coordinated growth of research in this field. Finally, specifi c directions for future research and best practices for organizations are identified.