Steven P. Broglio
The acute evaluation and management of concussion are among the most complex and challenging injuries medical practitioners face. The variability in clinical presentation necessitates a systematic approach to the injury evaluation. The evaluation should include a thorough injury history and clinical examination that is supported by objective measures of mental status and motor control. The integration of all information should be used in making the clinical diagnosis.
Tracey E. Rizzuto, Katie E. Cherry, and Jared A. LeDoux
Aging trends worldwide raise awareness for the need to understand the impact of cognitive aging on the work lives and productivity of older adults. By confronting actual and perceptual challenges associated with cognitive aging, organizations can better support this vital workforce segment. This chapter describes the effects of aging on select aspects of cognitive functioning, and reviews research from laboratory and on-the-job studies to address how the performance of job tasks and other life activities may be affected. Various cognitive aging dimensions and their implications for job performance are discussed. In addition, methodological concerns and challenges associated with cognitive aging research are described, along with new directions for successful aging among late-career workers.
Adam T. Gerstenecker and Benjamin T. Mast
This chapter examines the role of psychologists in the rehabilitation of older adults. The chapter begins with a review of the changes expected to take place in the population demographics of the United States and its impact on geriatric rehabilitation. The next section highlights core concepts in geriatric rehabilitation, as well as predictors of successful outcome. In the final sections of the chapter, psychologists’ roles within geriatric rehabilitation will be examined, with particular emphasis placed upon assessing cognitive impairment and depression, and specific interventions for treating depression in geriatric rehabilitation patients.
Mark R. Wilson
In sport psychology, the relationship between competitive anxiety and performance has been one of the most debated and researched topics of enquiry. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are still unclear, as are the reasons why performance can sometimes be optimal (“clutch” performance) and sometimes far below what should be achieved (“choking”). The current chapter integrates research findings and models from the neuroscience, cognitive psychology, human movement science, and sport performance literature to offer a potential explanatory framework, especially with respect to self-paced, visually guided skills. The mediating role of visual attention is implicated, as it has been proposed to be central to both the top-down control of motor planning and the effects of anxiety on cognitive performance. Contemporary research testing the effects of anxiety on visual attention (particularly the quiet eye) in performance environments, and the efficacy of attentional training programs, are discussed.
Daniel A. Briley
As a field, behavior genetics has a long and often underappreciated focus on environmental and situational factors. This chapter describes the methodological details and empirical findings of this line of work, as well as what situation research can gain from behavior genetics and vice versa. Genetically informative designs offer tools to quantify the extent to which people actively create their situational experiences as opposed to randomly encountering them, and novel advances in situation research have the potential to clarify the scattered history of environmental variables in behavioral genetics. Current progress in personality psychology will be highlighted. Parallels between behavior genetics and personality work can be found both in terms of mechanisms (e.g., gene-environment correlation and gene × environment interaction contrasting with selection effects and person × situation effects) and explanatory pitfalls. Researchers interested in delineating the pathways from situations to behavior would do well to draw from and build upon work in behavior genetics.
Matt McGue and Brian M. Hicks
We review behavioral and biometrical genetic research aimed at characterizing the nature of the familial aggregation of adolescent substance use and abuse. Twin and adoption studies have shown that genetic factors contribute to individual differences in adolescent substance use phenotypes. These studies have also documented the importance of the shared environment. Biometrical analyses of large samples of twins show that the contributions of genetic and shared environmental factors to substance use phenotypes change markedly between adolescence and early adulthood. The importance of genetic influence increases with age as the importance of shared environmental influences declines. Although only a small number of relevant genetic variants have been identified at this time, they show a similar pattern of increasing association with substance use behavior with age. A major question continues to be how genetic and environmental factors operate jointly to influence the development of complex behavioral phenotypes such as substance use.
David Alais and Randolph Blake
Many important aspects of objects and scenes are fundamentally ambiguous in the retinal images. This ambiguity at the input stage to vision poses a fundamental challenge in perceptual organization as the competing interpretations invariably give rise to a bistable behavior in which the two competing percepts alternate over time. The most common approach to studying visual ambiguity is binocular rivalry, in which two different images are presented, one to each eye. Here we review the basic properties of binocular rivalry and discuss its links with perceptual organization. We also address the role of attention and top-down influences on the interpretation of visual ambiguity, as well as recent work highlighting the moderating influence of multisensory context on binocular rivalry.
Mary Fristad and Elizabeth Nick
This chapter reviews bipolar spectrum disorders (bipolar I, bipolar II, bipolar disorder not otherwise specified, and cyclothymic disorder) in childhood and adolescence. The history of the diagnosis in youth, including recent increased public and professional interest, and surrounding controversy is reviewed. Attention is given to prevalence, incidence, similarities and differences in presentation, course, and comorbidities among child, adolescent, and adult bipolar spectrum disorders. Assessment issues are reviewed, including longitudinal and multiinformant perspectives, instruments, strategies, tools, and assessment challenges with youth. Examples of symptom manifestation in youth are provided. Genetic, cognitive, neuroanatomical, psychosocial, and environmental risks for youth bipolar spectrum disorders are discussed. Evidence-based treatments reviewed include commonly prescribed mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics, alternative biological treatments, adjunctive psychotherapies, and complementary and alternative treatments. Finally, future directions for the study, assessment, monitoring, and treatment of youth bipolar spectrum disorders are discussed.
Steven W. Zucker
Border ownership seems instantaneous and automatic, emerging as rapidly as figure separates from background. But this apparent immediacy hides an extremely subtle problem that lies at an intermediate level of visual processing. Somehow border ownership (the process) must integrate upward-flowing image-derived information about boundaries with downward-flowing figural information derived from boundary arrangement. It is related to Gestalt notions of closure. To appreciate border ownership as a process, we contrast it with a more traditional pathway to surface inferences, from boundaries to stereo and, finally, to shape from shading. In the end border ownership emerges as a rather different concept from these more geometric visual computations, thus establishing two poles to perceptual organization. The challenge is integrating the geometric content of borders with the topological content of figures within standard modeling formalisms. We suggest an expanded framework based on mathematical and physiological ideas, perhaps involving local field potentials.
Friedhelm C. Hummel and Leonardo G. Cohen
This article explains the role of brain stimulation in neurorehabilitation. The outline of this article is formed by the characterization of some of the problems faced in the field of nuerorehabilitation. Furthermore, it describes results of studies conducted to understand the functional changes in the motor cortices of hemispheres after stroke. This article finally discusses some of the interventional approaches proposed to improve motor function. Stroke is the main cause of long-term disability among adults. The disability resulting from stroke impairs the quality of life. Post-stroke recovery remains an important clinical focus. Various modalities of brain have been proposed as strategies to enhance motor function when combined with conventional neurorehabilitative interventions after a stroke. Before these approaches can reach the clinic, their results need to be replicated in larger samples and controlled conditions to determine their value.