David Foster and Harold L. Miller Jr.
The lack of adequate test security for important exams is a growing worldwide problem. As tests are relied upon globally more and more for critical educational and work-related decisions, there is a corresponding increase in attempts to steal test content or to cheat on tests. These threats to the valid use of tests have led to important ethical issues within the testing community. Five ethical dilemmas are presented, along with specific recommendations for resolving these issues.
Principles, Standards, and Guidelines that Impact Test Development and Use and Sources of Information
Test development and use may constitute psychology's most important technical contribution to the behavior sciences. Tests are found universally, albeit distributed unevenly. Despite their somewhat widespread use, ethics codes from only 20 psychological associations address issues associated with test development and use. However, services from professionals engaged in test development and use are likely to find general guidance from policies promulgated by international (i.e., World Health Organization, International Union of Psychological Sciences, and the International Association of Applied Psychology) and regional professional associations. Guidelines from the International Test Commission specifically address issues important to test adaptation and use. Guidelines from the American Psychological Association, British Psychological Society, and Canadian Psychological Association also are featured. Prominent sources that provide information on tests are identified.
John Z. Sadler
Values are action-guiding dispositions that are subject to praise or blame, and as such are fundamental in making choices and taking action in any human context, including clinical practice and research. The first half of the chapter reviews the contemporary role of philosophical value theory in understanding the clinical process of diagnosis and the development of formal classifications of psychopathology. The second half of the chapter discusses the kinds of values evident in these areas and raises unanswered questions for the field. Despite two decades of progress in understanding the key role of values in clinical and classificatory work, the open disclosure and negotiation of values in psychiatry remains a novel idea for many, and psychiatric and philosophical research into the area of values and diagnosis/classification is only in its infancy.