María Oliva Márquez-González, Andrés Losada, and Rosa Romero-Moreno
Dementia caregiving is associated with negative physical and psychological health consequences. Multicomponent, behavioural, and psychotherapeutic interventions for reducing caregivers’ distress, particularly the cognitive-behavioural ones, present the greatest effect sizes, but nevertheless these effects are only moderate. The third wave of behavioural therapies and, specifically acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), offers interesting therapeutic tools aimed at fostering the acceptance of aversive internal experiences and the commitment to personal values. Given the chronic nature of the caregiving situation and the unchangeability of many of its elements (e.g. feeling sadness or grief), ACT represents a promising and potentially helpful therapeutic approach to help dementia caregivers to decrease their emotional distress. Very few studies have so far analysed the efficacy of ACT or some of its components (e.g. mindfulness) in this population, but these provide some preliminary support for the utility of this approach in improving caregivers’ psychological well-being. Assuming the need for further research in order to consider ACT as an empirically validated therapy for dementia caregivers, in this chapter we analyse, in the context of caregiving, the psychological processes highlighted in the ACT model of psychopathology, such as experiential avoidance, describing examples of them in cases of caregivers we have assisted in our clinical work, and outlining ACT-based therapeutic strategies that we have found useful on a clinical basis for modifying them.
Miguel Pinedo, Sarah Zemore, Cheryl Cherpitel, and Raul Caetano
This chapter reviews a study exploring the influence of acculturation on alcohol use disorders (AUD) among a sample of Mexican-origin participants residing on and off the US-Mexico border region. The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine what domains of US acculturation predict AUD; (2) determine whether retaining aspects of Mexican culture protects against AUD; (3) examine potential mediators that might explain the relationship between acculturation and AUD, including factors relevant to a stress-based model and a normative model; and (4) determine whether the relationship between acculturation measures and AUD differs by environmental contexts. Findings suggest the influence of acculturation on Mexican women’s drinking behaviors might vary across environmental contexts. Characteristics of the border environment might exacerbate alcohol problems among more acculturated women. Findings also support a normative model of acculturation. Programs and prevention strategies at the border targeting drinking norms and motives might be particularly beneficial for women.
Acculturation and Alcohol Use Among Hispanic and Asian American College Students: What Do We Know and Where Could We Go?
Byron L. Zamboanga, Cara C. Tomaso, and P. Priscilla Lui
Many college students, are susceptible to alcohol use and related problems, including Hispanic and Asian Americans. A potential factor contributing to this risk is acculturation, which can be defined as the process of psychological, behavioral, social, and cultural change and adaptation that occurs when individuals or groups from different cultural backgrounds come in contact. This chapter provides a narrative review of the literature examining acculturation and alcohol use among these populations. One key theme to emerge from this review is that the exact direction of the association between these variables is unclear and therefore should be considered with caution. While the existing evidence is relatively limited, gender and, to some extent, ethnic group membership appear to moderate the association between acculturation and alcohol use. Several methodological issues pertaining to the study of acculturation, future research directions, and implications for intervention and prevention are discussed.
Seth J. Schwartz and Jennifer Unger
The purpose of this book is to bridge “basic” theory and research on acculturation—that is, what acculturation is, how it operates, and what are the appropriate methods to study it—with “applied” acculturation research—that is, how acculturation affects various health behaviors and outcomes among migrant populations. This introductory chapter reviews current theory and research on acculturation and health and points to future directions for the field. We also propose some new ideas to help move the field forward. The chapter also lays out the structure of and goals for the book. Fundamental definitional issues regarding what acculturation is, and how it could relate to health outcomes, are covered.
Ana F. Abraído-Lanza, Karen R. Flórez, and Rachel C. Shelton
Despite the many health benefits of physical activity (PA), the majority of Latinos do not meet recommended levels of PA. This chapter provides an overview of research on acculturation and PA among adult Latinos in the United States. It identifies gaps in knowledge concerning the association between acculturation and different types of PA, the joint effects of socioeconomic position and acculturation on PA, and research on gender. It suggests several areas for further research related to acculturation and PA, including an exploration of norms, social networks, and broader social contexts. It concludes that although the bulk of evidence indicates that greater acculturation is associated with increased PA, more complex research designs and greater methodological and conceptual rigor are needed to move forward research in this area.
Acculturation and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Adolescents and Emerging Adults from Immigrant Families
Jennifer Tsai, Davida Becker, Steve Sussman, Ricky Bluthenthal, Jennifer Unger, and Seth J. Schwartz
Adolescents and emerging adults who engage in risky sexual behaviors (RSBs), such as inconsistent condom use, having multiple partners, having sex at a young age, and having sex while intoxicated or high, are at elevated risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and unplanned pregnancy. The chapter discusses the relationship of acculturation (along with associated intrapersonal and interpersonal mediators and moderators) with RSB outcomes. Acculturation can be a protective or risk-enhancing factor for RSBs among adolescents. Intrapersonal variables, such as academic achievement, sexual intention, and sexual health knowledge, and interpersonal variables, such as parent, peer, and partner relationships, can act as mediators between acculturation and RSBs. The strength of these relationships may be further moderated by religiosity and gender. Implications for future research and interventions are proposed.
Alan Meca, Lauren G. Reinke, and Lawrence M. Scheier
This chapter explores the incipient role of acculturation in cigarette smoking, tobacco use, and use of illicit drugs in Hispanic youth in the United States. It first examines the conceptual foundations of acculturation, including early unidimensional models and later bidimensional and multicomponent perspectives of acculturation. It then reviews empirical studies linking acculturation with cigarette/tobacco and, separately, illicit drug use among Hispanic youth. The cumulative body of evidence is reviewed in terms of methodological strengths and weaknesses and how they sharpen our focus on acculturation in development. The chapter also examines three key developmental mechanisms that may account for the underlying relations between acculturation and drug use: (1) cultural stress, (2) family functioning, and (3) change in cognitive functioning related to drug use. The chapter closes with several recommendations that may help clarify the developmental linkages between acculturation and Hispanic youth drug use and should be addressed by future research.
Paul Richard Smokowski, Martica Bacallao, Corrine David-Ferdon, and Caroline B.R. Evans
This chapter provides a comprehensive review of research linking acculturation and violent behavior for adolescents of three minority populations: Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI), and American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN). Studies on Latino and A/PI youth indicate that higher levels of adolescent assimilation were a risk factor for violence. Ethnic group identity or culture of origin involvement appear to be cultural assets against youth violence, with supporting evidence from studies on A/PI youth; however, more studies are needed on Latino and AI/AN youth. Although some evidence shows low acculturation or cultural marginality to be a risk factor for higher levels of fear, victimization, and being bullied, low acculturation also serves as a protective factor against dating violence victimization for Latino youth. An emerging trend, in both the Latino and A/PI youth literature, shows the impact of acculturation processes on youth aggression and violence can be mediated by family dynamics.
Marina Doucerain, Norman Segalowitz, and Andrew G. Ryder
This article discusses the importance of clear and precise conceptualizations of acculturation as well as the need for consistencies in definition, operationalization, and measurement. More specifically, it argues for an expanded acculturation research toolkit that does not rely too heavily on self-report acculturation scales. The article begins with an overview of the state of affairs with respect to acculturation conceptualizations and methods, paying particular attention to the unidimensional, bidimensional, and multidimensional frameworks of psychological acculturation. It then considers ways in which commonly used definitions and methods of acculturation can be used more intelligently. It also describes alternative methods for researchers interested in moving beyond self-report rating scales, a tiered approach to acculturation research, and method-specific health considerations. Finally, it offers some recommendations aimed at helping the field of acculturation and health research move forward.
Andrea Romero and Brandy Piña-Watson
This chapter discusses the concepts of acculturative and bicultural stress, the theory and method behind the measurement, and the implications of the US immigration policy context for stress. The central sources of acculturative and bicultural stress are reviewed, including intergroup discrimination, language stress, intragroup marginalization, and family cultural conflict. In particular, literature is reviewed that examines the association between mental health and acculturative or bicultural stress. Extant research does demonstrate that degree of stress varies for individuals and that acculturative/bicultural stress is experienced not only by immigrants but also by minorities in the United States. Therefore, the present chapter reviews literature that connects the acculturative/bicultural stress process across generations. The immigration context is considered for future research in the area of acculturation and stress.