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Aging Processes in the Subcortical Auditory System  

Donald M. Caspary and Daniel A. Llano

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
As arguably the third most common malady of industrialized populations, age-related hearing loss is associated with social isolation and depression in a subset of the population that will ... More

Brainstem Encoding of Speech and Music Sounds in Humans  

Nina Kraus and Trent Nicol

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
The encoding of speech and music in the auditory brainstem is available at the human scalp via the auditory-evoked frequency following response. The FFR, primarily reflecting activity in ... More

Changes in the Inferior Colliculus Associated with Hearing Loss: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, Age-Related Hearing Loss, Tinnitus and Hyperacusis  

Alan R. Palmer and Joel I. Berger

The inferior colliculus is an important auditory relay center that undergoes fundamental changes following hearing loss, whether noise induced (NIHL) or age related (ARHL). These changes ... More

The Cochlear Nuclei: Synaptic Plasticity in Circuits and Synapses in the Ventral Cochlear Nuclei  

Donata Oertel, Xiao-Jie Cao, and Alberto Recio-Spinoso

Plasticity in neuronal circuits is essential for optimizing connections as animals develop and for adapting to injuries and aging, but it can also distort the processing, as well as ... More

Control of Locomotion in Hexapods  

Roy E. Ritzmann and Sasha N. Zill

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
This article discusses legged locomotion in insects. It describes the basic patterns of coordinated movement both within each leg and among the various legs. The nervous system controls ... More

Extraction of Auditory Information by Modulation of Neuronal Ion Channels  

Leonard K. Kaczmarek

All neurons express a subset of over seventy genes encoding potassium channel subunits. These channels have been studied in auditory neurons, particularly in the medial nucleus of the ... More

Glial Cells in the Auditory Brainstem  

Giedre Milinkeviciute and Karina S. Cramer

The auditory brainstem carries out sound localization functions that require an extraordinary degree of precision. While many of the specializations needed for these functions reside in ... More

Motion Vision in Arthropods  

Alex S. Mauss and Alexander Borst

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Visual perception seems effortless to us, yet it is the product of elaborate signal processing in intricate brain circuits. Apart from vertebrates, arthropods represent another major ... More

Motor Control in Soft-Bodied Animals: The Octopus  

Guy Levy, Nir Nesher, Letizia Zullo, and Binyamin Hochner

Online publication date:
Feb 2017
Motor Control is essentially the computations required for producing coordinated sequences of commands from the controlling system (i.e., nervous system) to the actuation system (i.e., ... More

Perinatal Development of the Medial Nucleus of the Trapezoid Body  

Shobhana Sivaramakrishnan, Ashley Brandebura, Paul Holcomb, Daniel Heller, Douglas Kolson, Dakota Jackson, Peter H. Mathers, and George A. Spirou

Bushy cells (BC) of the cochlear nucleus mono-innervate their target neuron, the principal cell of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), via the calyx of Held (CH) terminal, ... More