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Central Nervous System Pain Pathways  

Andrew J. Todd and Fan Wang

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
Nociceptive primary afferents detect stimuli that are normally perceived as painful, and these afferents form synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the spinal trigeminal ... More

Changes in the Inferior Colliculus Associated with Hearing Loss: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, Age-Related Hearing Loss, Tinnitus and Hyperacusis  

Alan R. Palmer and Joel I. Berger

The inferior colliculus is an important auditory relay center that undergoes fundamental changes following hearing loss, whether noise induced (NIHL) or age related (ARHL). These changes ... More

Chemosensory Transduction in Arthropods  

Monika Stengl

Reception of chemicals via olfaction and gustation are prerequisites to find, distinguish, and recognize food and mates and to avoid dangers. Several receptor gene superfamilies are ... More

The Cochlear Nuclei: Synaptic Plasticity in Circuits and Synapses in the Ventral Cochlear Nuclei  

Donata Oertel, Xiao-Jie Cao, and Alberto Recio-Spinoso

Plasticity in neuronal circuits is essential for optimizing connections as animals develop and for adapting to injuries and aging, but it can also distort the processing, as well as ... More

Dendritic Targeting and Regulatory RNA Control of Local Neuronal Translation  

Taesun Eom, Ilham A. Muslimov, Anna Iacoangeli, and Henri Tiedge

Online publication date:
Jun 2018
This chapter reviews current developments in the area of translational control in neurons. It focuses on the activity-dependent translational modulation by neuronal regulatory RNAs, ... More

The Diversified Form and Function of Cochlear Afferents  

Paul Albert Fuchs

Online publication date:
Sep 2018
Cochlear afferents differ in form and function. The great majority are type I, large diameter, myelinated neurons that contact a single inner hair cell to transmit acoustic information. ... More

Efferent Innervation to the Cochlea  

Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Carolina Wedemeyer, and Mariano N. Di Guilmi

Online publication date:
Jul 2018
The auditory system consists of ascending and descending neuronal pathways. The best studied is the ascending pathway, whereby sounds that are transduced in the cochlea into electrical ... More

Extraction of Auditory Information by Modulation of Neuronal Ion Channels  

Leonard K. Kaczmarek

All neurons express a subset of over seventy genes encoding potassium channel subunits. These channels have been studied in auditory neurons, particularly in the medial nucleus of the ... More

GABAA Receptor Physiology and Pharmacology  

Martin Wallner, Anne Kerstin Lindemeyer, and Richard W. Olsen

Online publication date:
Mar 2018
GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are the main inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors and mediate rapid synaptic as well as slow extrasynaptic inhibitory neurotransmission. Structurally, GABAARs ... More

Genetic Analysis of Behavior in Drosophila  

Björn Brembs

The main function of brains is to generate adaptive behavior. Far from being the stereotypical, robot-like insect, the fruit fly Drosophila exhibits astounding flexibility and chooses ... More