Andrew J. Todd and Fan Wang
Nociceptive primary afferents detect stimuli that are normally perceived as painful, and these afferents form synapses in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and the spinal trigeminal nucleus. Here they are involved in highly complex neuronal circuits involving projection neurons belonging to the anterolateral tract (ALT) and interneurons, which modulate the incoming sensory information. The ALT neurons convey somatosensory information to a variety of brain regions that are involved in the various aspects of the pain experience. A spinothalamic-cortical pathway provides input to several regions of the cerebral cortex, including the first and second somatosensory areas (S1, S2), the insula and the cingluate cortex. These regions are thought be responsible for the sensory-discriminative aspects of pain (S1), pain-related learning (S2), the autonomic and motivational responses (insula), and the negative affect (cingulate). Another ascending system, The spinoparabrachial-limbic pathway targets a variety of brain regions, including the amygdala, and is likely involved in the affective component of pain. A descending system that includes the limbic system, the periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain, the locus coeruleus, and the rostral ventral medulla, can suppress pain, and this operates partly through the monoamine transmitters noradrenaline and serotonin which are released in the spinal and trigeminal dorsal horn.
Changes in the Inferior Colliculus Associated with Hearing Loss: Noise-Induced Hearing Loss, Age-Related Hearing Loss, Tinnitus and Hyperacusis
Alan R. Palmer and Joel I. Berger
The inferior colliculus is an important auditory relay center that undergoes fundamental changes following hearing loss, whether noise induced (NIHL) or age related (ARHL). These changes may contribute to the induction or maintenance of phenomena such as tinnitus (phantom auditory sensations) and hyperacusis (increased sensitivity to sound). Here, we outline changes that can occur in the inferior colliculus following damage to the periphery and/or as a result of the ageing process, both immediate and long-term, and attempt to disentangle which changes relate to either tinnitus or hyperacusis, as opposed to solely hearing loss. Understanding these changes is ultimately important to reversing the underlying pathology and treating these conditions.
Reception of chemicals via olfaction and gustation are prerequisites to find, distinguish, and recognize food and mates and to avoid dangers. Several receptor gene superfamilies are employed in arthropod chemosensation: inverse 7-transmembrane (7-TM) gustatory and olfactory receptors (GRs, ORs), 3-TM ionotropic glutamate-related receptors (IRs), receptor-guanylyl cyclases, transient receptor potential ion channels, and epithelial sodium channels. Some of these receptor gene families have ancient origins and expanded in several taxa, producing very large, variant gene families adapted to the respectively relevant odor ligands in species-specific environments. Biochemical and electrophysiological studies in situ as well as molecular genetics found evidence for G-protein-dependent signal transduction cascades for ORs, GRs, and IRs, suggesting that signal amplification is paramount for chemical senses. In contrast, heterologous expression studies argued for primarily ionotropic transduction as a prerequisite to interstimulus intervals in the range of microseconds.
Donata Oertel, Xiao-Jie Cao, and Alberto Recio-Spinoso
Plasticity in neuronal circuits is essential for optimizing connections as animals develop and for adapting to injuries and aging, but it can also distort the processing, as well as compromise the conveyance of ongoing sensory information. This chapter summarizes evidence from electrophysiological studies in slices and in vivo that shows how remarkably robust signaling is in principal cells of the ventral cochlear nucleus. Even in the face of short-term plasticity, these neurons signal rapidly and with temporal precision. They can relay ongoing acoustic information from the cochlea to the brain largely independently of sounds to which they were exposed previously.
Taesun Eom, Ilham A. Muslimov, Anna Iacoangeli, and Henri Tiedge
This chapter reviews current developments in the area of translational control in neurons. It focuses on the activity-dependent translational modulation by neuronal regulatory RNAs, including underlying interactions with eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs), and on the role of such modulation in locally controlled protein synthesis in synapto-dendritic domains. It highlights the role of dendritic RNA targeting as a key prerequisite of local translation at the synapse and discusses the significance of these mechanisms in the expression of higher brain functions, including learning, memory, and cognition. The chapter concludes with discussion of anticipated future work to continue to elucidate these mechanisms and provide advances in the area of translational regulation in neurons and our understanding of how translational dysregulation contributes to neurological and cognitive disorders.
Paul Albert Fuchs
Cochlear afferents differ in form and function. The great majority are type I, large diameter, myelinated neurons that contact a single inner hair cell to transmit acoustic information. Each inner hair cell is presynaptic to a pool of 10–30 type I afferents, among which spontaneous activity and acoustic threshold vary widely. Variation in the number, voltage-gating, and density of L-type calcium channels at each presynaptic active zone (ribbon) may dictate this functional diversity. Despite contacting large numbers of outer hair cells, the scarce, unmyelinated type II afferents are acoustically insensitive, and only weakly depolarized by outer hair cell transmitter release. However, type II afferents respond strongly to adenosine triphosphate released by cochlear tissue damage, providing a biological basis for painful hearing (noxacusis).
Ana Belén Elgoyhen, Carolina Wedemeyer, and Mariano N. Di Guilmi
The auditory system consists of ascending and descending neuronal pathways. The best studied is the ascending pathway, whereby sounds that are transduced in the cochlea into electrical signals are sent to the brain via the auditory nerve. Before reaching the auditory cortex, auditory ascending information has several central relays: the cochlear nucleus and superior olivary complex in the brainstem, the lateral lemniscal nuclei and inferior colliculus in the midbrain, and the medial geniculate body in the thalamus. The function(s) of the descending corticofugal pathway is less well understood. It plays important roles in shaping or even creating the response properties of central auditory neurons and in the plasticity of the auditory system, such as reorganizing cochleotopic and computational maps. Corticofugal projections are present at different relays of the auditory system. This review focuses on the physiology and plasticity of the medial efferent olivocochlear system.
Leonard K. Kaczmarek
All neurons express a subset of over seventy genes encoding potassium channel subunits. These channels have been studied in auditory neurons, particularly in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body. The amplitude and kinetics of various channels in these neurons can be modified by the auditory environment. It has been suggested that such modulation is an adaptation of neuronal firing patterns to specific patterns of auditory inputs. Alternatively, such modulation may allow a group of neurons, all expressing the same set of channels, to represent a variety of responses to the same pattern of incoming stimuli. Such diversity would ensure that a small number of genetically identical neurons could capture and encode many aspects of complex sound, including rapid changes in timing and amplitude. This review covers the modulation of ion channels in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body and how it may maximize the extraction of auditory information.
Martin Wallner, Anne Kerstin Lindemeyer, and Richard W. Olsen
GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are the main inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors and mediate rapid synaptic as well as slow extrasynaptic inhibitory neurotransmission. Structurally, GABAARs are ligand-gated ion channels formed by a total of 19 homologous subunits, each with four transmembrane domains assembled as pentamers, forming a GABA-gated Cl– channels. The major classical synaptic GABAAR subtypes are formed by 2α2β and a γ subunit, with six different possible α subunits, three different β subunits, and three γ subunits, with the most abundant subtype, α1β2γ2 receptors. More recently, highly GABA-sensitive extrasynaptic δ subunit-containing receptors that are persistently (tonically) activated by low ambient levels of GABA have entered the limelight. GABAARs are targets for sedative/hypnotic and anxiolytic drugs (e.g., benzodiazepines [BZs] and other BZ site ligands), as well as general anesthetics (e.g., etomidate, propofol, barbiturate, and neurosteroid anesthetics, and possibly volatile agents and long-chain alcohols), and also are important targets for alcohol actions.
The main function of brains is to generate adaptive behavior. Far from being the stereotypical, robot-like insect, the fruit fly Drosophila exhibits astounding flexibility and chooses different courses of actions even under identical external circumstances. Due to the power of genetics, we now are beginning to understand the neuronal mechanisms underlying this behavioral flexibility. Interestingly, the evidence from studies of disparate behaviors converges on common organizational principles common to many if not all behaviors, such as modified sensory processing, involvement of biogenic amines in network remodeling, ongoing activity, and modulation by feedback. Seemingly foreseeing these recent insights, the first research fields in Drosophila behavioral neurogenetics reflected this constant negotiation between internal and external demands on the animal as the common mechanism underlying adaptive behavioral choice in Drosophila.