M.J. Rob Nout, Bei-Zhong Han, and Cherl-Ho Lee
This article discusses the fermentation process for Asian foods, with particular emphasis on fermented food products made from major primary produce such as soybeans, cereals, and meat. A selection of representative fermentations in Asian countries or subregions is provided and fermentations dominated by different types of microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi) are described. Furthermore, fermentations are distinguished according to the inclusion of salt. The article first considers the scientific knowledge referring to food production, microbiological, and chemical composition and (bio)chemical changes taking place during the fermentation before giving an overview of fermented soybean products such as soybean sauce and soybean paste. It then examines fermented meat products and cereal products and concludes with an assessment of prospects for research and development relating to the fermentation of Asian products.
Thomas H. Shellhammer
This article discusses the complex science, culture and tradition, technology, and skills involved in beer fermentation. It begins with an overview of the history of malting and brewing as well as world consumption of beer before explaining the basic steps to malting barley. Next to water, malted barley is the main ingredient used to make beer. It provides four very important qualities to the beer-making process: starch, enzymes suitable for converting that starch into a fermentable extract, flavor, and color. The article proceeds by describing barley cleaning and sorting, steeping, germination, kilning, and cleaning and blending. It also considers brewhouse operations, hops cultivation and processing, and hop chemistry as well as the steps involved in the fermentation process, such as brewing and handling yeast, haze stabilization and clarification. Finally, it analyzes packaging as the final step in the production of beer.
N.V. Bougas, P. van Rensburg, C.L.C. Snyman, and M. G. Lambrechts
This article discusses the production of cognac, armagnac, and brandy. It first provides an overview of brandy as a category in the global spirits market before describing how cognac, armagnac, and brandy are produced using a wide variety of grape cultivars. The main apparatus used for the production of brandy, cognac and armagnac is the pot still, but distillation can also be carried out using a column still (continuous distillation). After the distillation process, the distillate is then placed in oak barrels to mature. The article goes on to consider brandy production in South Africa and Spain, the brandies produced in Cognac and Armagnac, and American brandy. It also examines factors influencing the composition of brandy such as cultivars, yeast strain, malo-lactic fermentation, distillation, and maturation, along with volatile compounds present in distillates and final brandy products. Finally, it analyzes future trends in the brandy industry.
E. Zannini, A. Moroni, M. Belz, A. Faltermaier, and E. K. Arendt
This article focuses on the processing of breads. It first provides a historical overview of breadmaking, noting that the process of making bread in ancient times is not all very different from modern bread manufacturing practices, before describing the main and optional ingredients, mixing, fermentation, and proofing as well as the baking and cooling process involved in breadmaking. It then considers the shelf life of breads and how it can be affected by staling and microbiological spoilage. It also examines sourdough and sourdough bread, with emphasis on the ecology of traditional and gluten-free (GF) sourdoughs; starch hydrolysis and bread staling; the mechanism and effects of proteolysis on bread quality; exopolysaccharides as hydrocolloids replacers; sourdough as a flavor-enhancer ingredient; and application of sourdough for prolonging the shelf life of bread. Finally, it discusses the use of GF diet as therapy for people with celiac disease.
Andrew G.H. Lea
This article discusses the procedures involved in cidermaking. It first provides an overview of the history and definition of cider before considering raw materials used in making cider, including cider apples, milling and pressing, and juices added to the cider. It then describes the cider fermentation process, from yeast selection and malo-lactic fermentation to sulphite binding and determining cider color and flavor. It also examines post-fermentation operations that include racking, storage, and packaging; how producers deal with microbiological disorder of stored bulk ciders known as “cider sickness” as well as flavor taints in ciders; and the manufacture of perry. Finally, it analyzes future developments in the production of cider.
Rosane F. Schwan and Disney R. Dias
This article deals with the production of cocoa and chocolate. Cocoa beans are the raw material for chocolate and cocoa-derived products. Cocoa trees are native to equatorial climate regions, but Europe and the United States are the world’s leading chocolate producers and consumers. The fermentation of cocoa beans exerts a major influence on the sensory characteristics of chocolate. Studies undertaken in the twentieth century have yielded significant insights into the basic physiology and ecology of cocoa fermentation as well as the biochemical changes that occur during the cocoa fermentation, drying, and roasting processes leading to chocolate flavor. The article first provides an overview of the global production of cocoa and chocolate before discussing the fermentation process, taking into account the role of the substrate, microbial fermentation, drying, and cocoa processing. It also examines how chocolate flavor and quality develop during fermentation.
Rosane F. Schwan, Cristina F. Silva, and Luis R. Batista
This article discusses the production process for coffee, the most important commodity traded in world markets after petroleum. Coffee beverages offer potential beneficial effects on human health owing to their antioxidant properties. There are different types of coffee beverages according to nuances in terms of body, aroma, acidity, and astringency. The article first provides an overview of Coffea arabica and its different varieties before considering the post-harvest processing of coffee fruits and its effect on beverage quality. It also examines the microbiota present in coffee fermentation, including several species of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. Finally, it analyzes microorganisms present in dry fermentation and microbiota found in wet-processed, depulped, and washed coffee.
Robert E. Ward
This article considers the fermentation of flavors and other components for use in foods and beverages. It first provides an overview of the types of fermentations performed for food ingredients and the microbes used, along with the different process variables that are related, before discussing the process of microbial metabolism. It then describes the media components involved in fermentation, including carbon and nitrogen sources, inorganic ions and trace elements, amino acids, vitamins, and other organic compounds. It also examines fermentation parameters, submerged fermentation, solid-state fermentation, downstream processing, and process optimization for food ingredients. Finally, it analyzes the global market for fermentation products, focusing on the production of amino acids, organic acids, enzymes, and flavor ingredients using fermentations.
Jirawat Yongsawatdigul, Dong-Soo Kim, Somjintana Tungkawachara, and Jae W. Park
This article discusses the manufacturing process for fermented fishery products primarily representing east Asia (South Korea) and southeast Asia (Tailand), with particular emphasis on the biochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermentation. It first considers high salt-fermented fish products such as jeotgal, plakem or salted fish, and kapi before turning to low salt-fermented fish products including sikhae, plara, and plasom. It then describes the fermentation process for fish sauce, focusing on the preparation method, biochemical and microbiological factors affecting the quality of fish sauce, histamine control in fish sauce made from anchovies, and parameters for estimating the quality of fish sauce. It also reviews experimental studies on fish sauce with two nontraditional species, Pacific whiting and capelin.
This article discusses the manufacture and microbial ecology of fermented meats as well as the factors affecting their safety and sensory quality. Fermented meats are produced by the action of microorganisms and/or tissue enzymes such as proteases. They can be classified into fermented sausages and raw dry hams. The article first provides an overview of the principles underlying the manufacture of fermented sausages, taking into consideration the different types of fermented sausages, microorganisms involved in sausage fermentation, biological hazards that pose a threat to the safety of fermented sausages, and sensory properties of fermented sausages. It then describes the basic manufacturing process for raw salted/cured hams and concludes with an assessment of future developments in the manufacture of fermented meats.