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African Traditional Religion and Violence  

Nathalie Wlodarczyk

Print publication date:
Jan 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2013
This chapter analyzes a wide range of African customs and legends. It demonstrates that African traditional religion offers notions of a thriving spirit world which provides “sacred ... More

Al-Jama‘a Al-Islamiya and the Al-Jihad Group in Egypt  

Nael Shama

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This article examines the development and ideology of Egypt’s largest militant groups, al-Jama`a al-Islamiya (al-Jama`a) and the Islamic Jihad Group (al-Jihad). It argues that modern ... More

Al-Qaida and Its Affiliates  

Jason Burke

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Dec 2013
This article examines the history, nature, and meaning of the “al-Qaida.” Debates have raged within the law enforcement and intelligence communities between those who favor a conception of ... More

The Allies  

Shlomo Aronson

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
The Big Three Allies — Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union — ultimately brought vast military power to bear against the Third Reich, thus obtaining its unconditional ... More

Ancient Jewish and Early Christian Millennialism  

James D. Tabor

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
This article focuses on ancient Jewish and early Christian millennialism, which are found to be intrinsically inconsistent—there are no specific pointers towards marking the end of time; ... More

Ancient Mississippian Trophy-Taking  

David H. Dye

Online publication date:
Jul 2016
Appropriating and manipulating human body parts was an important component of the belief system throughout much of the world. In eastern North America, Mississippian trophy-taking behavior ... More

Ancient Near Eastern Millennialism  

Robert Gnuse

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Jan 2012
Although there existed no real millennial text prior to late Jewish and early Christian texts, there exists an overabundance of resources that heavily draw on millennial texts. This ... More

Annihilationism  

Clark H. Pinnock

Print publication date:
Dec 2007
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
In Christian theology, annihilationism designates the views of those who hold that the finally impenitent wicked will cease to exist after (or soon after) the last judgment. Annihilation ... More

Anti-Semitism Research  

Wolfgang Benz

Print publication date:
Dec 2004
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Anti-Semitism refers to all anti-Jewish statements, tendencies, resentments, attitudes, and actions, regardless of whether they are religiously, racially, socially, or otherwise motivated. ... More

Antisemitism  

Richard S. Levy

Print publication date:
Nov 2010
Online publication date:
Jan 2011
This article addresses the phenomenon of organized antisemitism in the sixty years preceding the “Final Solution,” primarily in Germany but with comparisons to contemporaneous developments ... More

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