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Cities and Urbanization in American Political Development  

Richardson Dilworth

Print publication date:
Aug 2016
Online publication date:
Jul 2014
I suggest in this chapter that the uneasy fit of cities in the American political system (something that has persisted despite the fact that both cities and the American political system, ... More

Lisbon Strategy  

Annette Bongardt and Francisco Torres

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
This article focuses on the Lisbon Strategy. The Lisbon Strategy, developed at subsequent meetings of the European Council, outlines an economic and social strategy meant to relaunch the ... More

Lively Cities: People, Animals, and Urban Ecosystems  

Marcus Owens and Jennifer Wolch

Print publication date:
Apr 2017
Online publication date:
Feb 2015
The study of nonhuman animals in urban ecosystems is a recent but expanding field. This chapter explores the ways in which human-animal relationships in cities have historically been ... More

“Nature” and the (Built) Environment  

Steven Vogel

Print publication date:
Jan 2016
Online publication date:
Mar 2016
Environmentalism should deal with the environment, meaning that which environs us; instead it too frequently deals with “nature.” If the latter term means that part of the ... More

New York State and New York City Relations  

Bruce F. Berg

Print publication date:
Sep 2012
Online publication date:
Dec 2012
This article investigates the range of state-city relations in order to evaluate the state's impact on the city as well as the city's ability to influence state governance. New York City ... More

The Treaties of Paris  

Berthold Rittberger

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
Within a period of thirteen months, the heads of state of Italy, France, Germany, and the Benelux countries signed two treaties, the Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel ... More

The Treaties of Rome  

Mark Gilbert

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
On 25 March 1957, in the course of an imposing ceremony in Rome, the representatives of Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and West Germany signed a treaty instituting a ... More

The Treaty of Amsterdam  

Sophie Vanhoonacker

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
Like any political system, the EU was not built in one day, but its institutional structure, common policies, and rules have gradually been shaped on a day-to day basis, with regular ... More

The Treaty of Maastricht  

Finn Laursen

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
The Treaty of Maastricht, which created the EU, was signed in Maastricht on February 7, 1992, and entered into force on November 1, 1993 after being ratified by the then twelve member ... More

The Treaty of Nice  

Alberta M. Sbragia

Print publication date:
Aug 2012
Online publication date:
Jan 2013
The Treaty of Nice will be viewed in the history of European integration as a ‘hinge’ between the ‘old’ EU of fifteen West European states and the ‘new’ EU of twenty-seven or more states ... More

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