A number of recent research projects have explored applications of geographic profiling to counterterrorism and counterinsurgency. These efforts analyzed geospatial patterns of terrorist cells (e.g., the spatial relationship between safe houses and weapon storage sites), tested the ability of these techniques to locate terrorist bases from minor crimes and seditious graffiti, and examined the utility of geoprofiling for locating preparation sites used by insurgents for improvised explosive devices and rocket attacks. In appropriate cases, geoprofiling models have utility for prioritizing geo-intelligence and identifying logistic bases of terrorist operations. This chapter first discusses environmental criminology and the geography of crime. It then covers the basics of geographic profiling, its various applications, and the role of geospatial intelligence and crime pattern theory in counterterrorism. Finally, it examines the geospatial and temporal patterns of terrorism to show how geoprofiling can be used to analyze seditious graffiti, insurgency attacks, cyberterrorism, and bioterrorism.
Laura Dugan and Daren Fisher
The explosions on April 15, 2013 during the Patriot’s Day Marathon in Boston mark the first major terrorist attack in the United States since 9/11 and the first time since 1996 that terrorists targeted a major US sporting event. This chapter reviews events before and after the bombing to explore strategies to reduce risk and harm at sporting events without compromising the ideals of freedom and human capacity inherent to all sports. The chapter first presents the background of the Tsarnaev brothers and the challenges they faced. It then describes what is known of their plans for the day of the Marathon and the pursuit by law enforcement after the attack. It details the tactical and technological advances that helped law enforcement successfully end the crisis and arrest the surviving perpetrator. Finally, it discusses prevention and harm reduction measures that have since been adopted in major sporting events.
This article is concerned with terrorism and it presents comprehensive data on global terrorist attacks for rigorous policy analysis. It begins by summarizing efforts to measure terrorism and provides an overview of the distribution of global terrorist violence over time and space using the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) data. This article then turns to terrorist activity in the United States, describing perpetrators, targets, and weapons. It describes two efforts that assess the effectiveness of different policy interventions using the GTD data and attempts to understand government action in preventing terrorist activity. This article concludes with a discussion of need of a comprehensive data set that includes the full range of policy responses to terrorism that will enable us to analyze more thoroughly and more rigorously the policy responses to terrorism.