Churches and related buildings constitute the most significant surviving remains of Byzantine architecture. Numerous sources deal with the subject, including handbooks by Krautheimer (1986) and Mango (1976a), as well as monographs, regional surveys, and thematic studies. Kleinbauer's annotated bibliography (1991) includes an indispensable historiographic introduction, while Mathews addresses the role of liturgy in church design (1962, 1971, 1982). More recently, Ousterhout has attempted to interpret church architecture from the perspective of the builders (1999). Nevertheless, researchers tend to investigate church architecture out of context, without consideration for either its setting or its interior decoration. This article outlines the architectural history of churches and monasteries during the Byzantine Era, focusing on the pre-Constantinian (c.200-312), Constantinian (312-37), Early Christian (mid-fourth to fifth centuries), sixth century, transitional period (seventh to ninth centuries), Middle Byzantine (c.843-1204), and Late Byzantine (c.1204-1453) periods.
Sitta von Reden
This article examines developments in money and prices in Egypt during the Ptolemaic period based on numismatic and papyrological evidence. It first considers the introduction, spread, and circulation of coinage in Egypt and how money and coins were used for transactions throughout the country. It then discusses the administration of coinage in Ptolemaic Egypt, from the reduction of the weight of the gold and silver coinage under Ptolemy I to the monetary reforms of Ptolemy V. It also explores the use of cash and kind as a mode of payment for rents and wages; the possibility of commuting cash into kind (and vice versa) as a condition for Ptolemaic taxation principles to work in practice; and three different categories of wheat prices in the papyri. It ends by drawing some economic conclusions from prices in the papyri.
William E. Metcalf
Numismatics is the study of coins and coin-like objects. The material of numismatics in the Roman Empire has chronological range of about eight centuries. Beginning in Italy in the late fourth century
This article describes the origins of Greek numismatics, the emergence of the discipline, die study, hoards, and future trends. In discussing Greek coins, it presents a vivid case study of a trajectory in Hellenic scholarship observed similarly in archeology. In the early days, when artistic or iconographical interests dominated, coins were often thought of as ‘medals’; today more attention is paid to their social context, including not just their use in exchange, but also, for example, the circumstances of their production.
Numismatics is the systematic study of coins with cross-disciplinary connections, having found a central role in the interpretation of the history of art, religion, politics, political geography, and economy of the ancient and medieval world. It began as part of the philosophers' approach to political science and was later systematized as a collectors' discipline and antiquarian pursuit. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the rapid development and systematic study of Byzantine coins paralleled the emergence of specialized coin collections in Europe and the United States. These collections followed the already established trend of the rediscovery of Byzantium. This article focuses on the beginnings of numismatics, Byzantine coinage from the reign of Anastasios I to Constantine XI, and the role of coins in religion, political ideology, and art.
The article deals with the different taxes that were exacted in the Roman Principate. It analyzes not only the different concepts of taxation with a differentiation betweentributa, vectigalia, andportoriabut also the complex system of tax collection, the cooperation between private tax farmers and state officials, and the flow of income into the various treasuries (aerarium Saturni, aerarium militare, fiscus Caesaris). Furthermore, the close connection of Roman taxes with power politics of the Roman emperors as well as the interdependences with developments in society, economy, and law are revealed. Various questions and directions for possible future research are proposed.