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Abhidharma Philosophy  

Jan Westerhoff

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
This article provides an introduction to Abhidharma philosophy. The Abhidharma is a collection of texts intended to deal with what the Buddha taught. It is one of the three collections ... More

Abū Bakr al-Rāzī (d. 925), The Spiritual Medicine  

Peter Adamson

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter offers an overview and analysis of an important ethical work by the early thinker Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakariyyāʾ al-Rāzī (251/865–313/925). In keeping with his main ... More

Affirmative Action  

Rodney C. Roberts

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
“Affirmative action” is a term that has come to be associated with a variety of social policies that typically concern opportunities for employment or admission to institutions of higher ... More

African American Philosophy: A General Outline  

John H. McClendon III and Stephen C. Ferguson II

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
This article provides an introduction to African American philosophy. African American philosophy is intimately tied to African American intellectual history and culture. There are two ... More

African Philosophy  

Barry Hallen

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
This article provides an introduction to African philosophy. As time passes African philosophy becomes increasingly difficult to summarize. This is due as much to new discoveries about or ... More

Africana Philosophy: Prospects and Possibilities  

Tsenay Serequeberhan

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
From the fifteenth century to the middle of the twentieth century, victimized by the slave trade and colonial dismemberment, Africa was relegated to nonexistence. The Continent was ... More

Afro-Caribbean Philosophy  

Clevis Headley

Print publication date:
May 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2011
This article begins with a brief discussion of what makes one an Afro-Caribbean philosopher. To be classified as an Afro-Caribbean philosopher does not require that one satisfy racial or ... More

Aḥmad al-Mallawī (d. 1767): Commentary on the Versification of the Immediate Implications of Hypothetical Propositions  

Khaled El-Rouayheb

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
The Egyptian scholar Aḥmad al-Mallawī (d.1767) penned perhaps the most detailed treatment of the topic of the immediate implications of hypothetical propositions since the fourteenth ... More

Al-Fārābī’s (d. 950) On the One and Oneness: Some Preliminary Remarks on Its Structure, Contents, and Theological Implications  

Damien Janos

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter examines al-Fārābī’s (d. 950 CE) treatise On the One and Oneness (Kitāb al-wāḥid wa-l-waḥda), a work that focuses exclusively on the metaphysical themes of unity and ... More

Al-Ghazālī’s (d. 1111) Incoherence of the Philosophers  

Frank Griffel

Print publication date:
Dec 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
In his Incoherence of the Philosophers (Tahāfut al-falāsifa) al-Ghazali (d. 505/1111) addresses in twenty discussions teachings of the falāsifa and tries to show that these are not proven ... More

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