Many online video games nowadays feature voice-chat capabilities that enable players to speak with one another through microphones connected to computers and gaming consoles. Players who speak out via voice-chat telegraph ambiguous bodies and often end up participating (willingly or not) in instances of identity assimilation, repression, deception, and revelation. This chapter examines how voice technologies in online games compel players to negotiate practices of domination, masquerade, and passing through acts of speech and silence. Attempts here to put pressure on voice-body relations speak to a broader effort to reassess conventional theories of the voice as a site of authentic and agentic expression. The chapter will conclude by considering the sexual politics of voice-chat in the audibly male-dominated communities of online first-person-shooter games.
Jan Paul Herzer
The chapter discusses the use of interactive audio concepts and sound installations in built environments such as museums, exhibitions, trade fairs, and points of sale. It collects fundamental design approaches as well as technological basics und tries to describe the advantages of the use of nonlinear audio in architectural space. The chapter delivers a practical view on design processes that include the use of interactive audio, generative sound design, and procedural music. It describes diverse applications in the fields of architecture, interior design, and acoustic scenography. While highlighting the general need for the thought-through design of acoustic environments, it tries to encourage professionals to implement interactive audio concepts in the process of creating and shaping the aural architecture of a built environment.
This chapter reviews several studies of singing in different styles. The studies reveal that the differences concern all the main dimensions of phonation: F0, loudness, phonation type, and formant frequencies. Most vocal styles differ substantially from normal speech, though in quite different ways. A difficulty in describing the characteristics of the styles of singing typical of different musical genres is that the same term does not always mean the same to all experts. Some diverging results in voice research on styles of singing may perhaps emerge from such terminological issues. The author suggests that descriptions of different styles of singing should be related to objective findings on the overall phonatory and articulatory potentials of the voice.
The adult “non-singer” (“NS”) remains a common phenomenon in Western society. Until recently, it was accepted as an innate state, reflecting the dominant “can/cannot” view of human singing capacity in Western culture. However, expanding research in singing’s developmental nature has challenged this bipolar view. Evidence establishes that humans possess a species-wide facility for singing as a learned musical behavior. “NSs” who experienced arrested development as children report successful singing recovery/discovery in adulthood. “NS” is as much a socio-cultural as a musical problem, and its socio-cultural nature is contextualized. A comprehensive discussion of “NS” follows from an experiential stance, revealing the negative implications of the fixed “NS” label. A common “NS” attributional process is described, exposing the needs arising from such a socio-cultural attribution. Enablement strategies/techniques for facilitating “NS” singing re-entry are detailed and explicated. Impediments/challenges underpinning “NS” are discussed and approaches to prevent/reverse “NS” are explored.
A considerable amount of study has been devoted to the development of the adolescent male singing voice. By comparison, little attention has been given to the study of the adolescent female singing voice. However, in recent years, there has been increased interest in information regarding the girl’s voice during adolescence. In addition to providing a comparison of male and female adolescent voice change, this chapter reviews the physiological changes as well as symptoms associated with vocal development in the singing voice of adolescent girls. Further, the chapter outlines phases of vocal development as well as criteria for classification according to developmental phase. Finally, the chapter provides a review of research/literature on the topic of the female adolescent singing voice, as well as research regarding self-identity, singing, and adolescent females.
Noam Sagiv, Roger T. Dean, and Freya Bailes
This article presents a remarkable form of perception labeled synesthesia. Synesthesia is usually defined as a condition in which stimulation in one sensory modality also gives rise to a perceptual experience in other modalities. This article distinguishes between the involuntary psychological phenomenon and synesthesia in art involving intentional intermedia experimentation. No doubt, technology has made it easier to create multimedia today (e.g., the simple visualization one encounters using a media player), but the central question is not how to implement it but what to implement. This article discusses different approaches to real-time algorithmic synesthesia, in particular sharing features between simultaneously produced sound and image. It begins with the “genuine” synesthetic experience naturally occurring in a minority of individuals. The remainder of its discussion of the psychological phenomenon of synesthetic perception focuses predominantly on auditory-visual interactions.
With its roots in psychological writings of the twentieth century, the subject of the uncanny provides ways of critically analyzing why some objects appear eerie or make us feel uncomfortable. For researchers building on this appraisal, the uncanny is now associated with realistic, human-like characters featured in film and video games. Such characters may fall into an “Uncanny Valley” as their increased realism evokes a negative affective response in the viewer. This chapter presents a possible psychological explanation of the uncanny in virtual characters, based on a perception of a lack of empathy in a character. Aspects such as a lack of facial mimicry and a belief that there is an inability to forge an attachment with a character may lead to an abnegation of self and evoke the uncanny. An assessment is also made of how old and new definitions of the virtual may be applicable or untenable to the uncanny.
This essay examines how undergraduate composition teachers assess growth in their students’ work, and shows how assessment frameworks (such as rubrics) can be useful for college composition students and professors alike. The essay presents interviews with university composition faculty to establish the assessment strategies generally used in lessons. Next, it looks critically at existing frameworks and assessment philosophies, considering their strengths and shortcomings for departments whose students are growing ever more diverse in musical style and voice. Finally, it considers the composer’s task of designing an assessment framework for his or her studio, including areas of concern and possible starting points for organization.
Christopher D. Azzara and Alden H. Snell, II
This article provides an overview of research on assessment of improvisation in music and offers suggestions for increasing its centrality in music teaching and learning. With listening, improvising, reading, and composing as context for music teaching and learning, it covers historical and philosophical foundations for, and research on, creativity and improvisation. The article’s synthesis of the literature focuses on assessment of ability to interact, group, compare, and anticipate and predict music while improvising. Six elements (repertoire, vocabulary, intuition, reason, reflection, and exemplars) contribute to a holistic and comprehensive creative process that inspires spontaneous and meaningful music making. The article concludes with recommendations for replication and extension of research to provide insight for improvisation assessment.
James K. Scarborough and Jeremy N. Bailenson
The explosive growth and dissemination of internetworking technology has changed what we may consider community, culture, and society. A major part of this movement toward the virtual is the use of self-representative avatars. Studies have demonstrated that interactions between humans while they are embodied in avatars have distinct psychological implications both for the user and for others who may interact with the virtual representation. Social scientists are beginning to study avatars as a way of understanding people. This chapter explores research on the effects of human avatar interaction as well as effects found to occur when people interact via technology-mediated environments. It will cover the concepts of presence (the feeling of being there) and social presence (the feeling that others are there as well) and detail the theories of transformed social interaction and the social influence model. Several practical applications and examples will be discussed as well.