Richard T. Callaghan
This article examines the geographical setting and the effects of past sea levels, the present and past marine climate, and watercraft that may have been used in the Caribbean region. It notes that understanding seafaring in the Antilles is critical to understanding the nature of migration, cultural interaction, and the cultures themselves. Acquiring this understanding has been hampered by two factors. The first is the paucity of early historic reports regarding the size and speed of watercraft and the geographic knowledge held by the general population. The second factor is the “stepping-stone” configuration of the islands, which has led researchers to make assumptions about routes of migration and contact that are not necessarily well supported. Aside from contacts with South America, other mainland contacts have often been rejected out of hand without adequate analysis.
This chapter surveys the coinage issued by Arsacid, Elymaean, and fratarakā rulers. The mints and denominations are described and the use of Greek in coin legends is discussed. The iconography of these issues is treated, as are problems of chronology and attribution. Specific elements, such as fire altars and portraits, are highlighted.
Australia is quintessentially a maritime nation where sea travel and transportation have been vitally important. Despite being an island, Australia hasd never completely felt isolated, and the indigenous peoples were never cut off from the rest of the world. This article presents four case studies in order to provide insights into the types and extent of maritime archaeological research that has been conducted over more than three decades in Australia. One of the great influences of Australian maritime archaeology over the years has been the Australasian Institute for Maritime Archaeology. A drawback in Australian maritime archaeology is the lack of funding for academic research. Australia has developed legislation for the protection of the historic shipwreck component of its underwater cultural heritage.
This article is an introduction to the concept of maritime archaeology. In the field of archaeology, the study of a shipwreck endeavors to reconstitute the original ship. Thus, nautical archaeology belongs to the larger domain of maritime archaeology. The study of shipboard artifacts and cargo comes before a structural analysis is possible. Therefore, one must know how to anticipate the expected results in order to take into consideration the ensemble of data. A ship is an assembly of elements closely linked together, which express their true role in their relation to the whole. This article explains the conception phase. Several operations are necessary to achieve construction of a ship. The conception phase must then lead to a realization phase. The realization phase must materialize, with the help of diverse processes or methods, the construction principles chosen for the structural and shape concept of the ship.
Mark E. Polzer
This article focuses on early shipbuilding in the Eastern Mediterranean provided by shipwreck and terrestrial excavations. The study of the construction of early watercraft is mainly in the form of artistic representation. Egypt is the largest depository of early watercraft. The details of Near Eastern ships are painted on the Theban tomb of Kenamun. Hull remains from Late Bronze Age shipwrecks excavated off the coast of Turkey provide archaeological evidence for Levantine ships. The only pre-classical Aegean shipwreck to be excavated and studied by nautical archaeologists is that of a trading vessel, that sank on the southwestern Turkish coast. Greek builders strengthened their hulls transversely with internal framing comprised of preassembled “made-frames” alternating with top-timbers. The ancient seafaring cultures of the eastern Mediterranean each developed their own unique set of solutions to create elegant, sturdy, and capable boats and ships well suited to their environments and intended purposes.
Peter D. Fix
Aeronautical archaeology is not a highly developed area of study in today's time. However, there is a phenomenal amount of data in the form of photograph, drawing, manuscripts, and manuals that demonstrates important contributions that aeronautical archaeology can provide to understanding historical perspectives, technological advancements, and period construction practices. Aircraft sites have tremendous archaeological possibility for providing a historic record to help in the understanding of the evolution of aeronautical technology. Although many restoration works have taken place, there is little documentation of the same, hence, it is possible that some valuable data have been lost. Approaches to aeronautical archaeology must continue to evolve and must be used for gaining a better understanding of the context and the times in which these objects were developed and used.
Pilar Luna Erreguerena
Mexico's underwater cultural heritage represents a vast and splendid universe varying from prehistoric to modern remains. But one of its main cultural riches is contained in its coastal and open-sea waters, where hundreds of ships have wrecked since the sixteenth century. Most of the underwater archaeological work undertaken since the 1980s has been in marine waters, especially the Gulf of Mexico. This article explains the discourse of maritime archaeology in Mexico through various phases such as the pre Colombian navigation, the European navigation, and stages of underwater recovery and underwater archaeology in the Mexican waters. In Mexico, the effective management of submerged heritage sites has proved difficult. Although it has no specific laws, Mexico has gained a better awareness regarding the importance of preserving its submerged cultural heritage and has signed and ratified diverse international treaties and the future looks promising.
Hans K. Van Tilburg
The ship is the single central object for all migration and communication within the oceanic world. In the Pacific, a multitude of different vessel designs can be found, reflecting different seafaring cultures and locations and historical periods. The nineteenth century was the boom period for many different maritime trades in the wider Pacific. This article gives an overview of certain historical periods, discussing historical vessels. Maritime programs and institutions involved with maritime archaeology have increased in the Pacific over recent history. Since the Pacific is a large area and archaeological resources are limited, research questions need to be directed carefully. The challenges involved in this are logistical obstacles and safety considerations. Certainly, there is a potential to broaden the focus beyond shipwrecks alone. Maritime archaeology has a long way to travel in the Pacific.
The evolution of the factory in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries was one of the most significant components of the process of industrialization, the impact of which is still being felt today. Early factories played a vital part in the development of artificial lighting, particularly in the use of gas lights. This role was not confined to the pioneering of the technology; also, perhaps more significantly, it altered public attitudes to these new forms of illumination. This chapter describes these technological and social developments, but also shows how the changes which new lighting technologies brought to the workplace were often not as many previous authors have assumed.
Francesco Menotti and Aidan O'Sullivan
This chapter introduces the global phenomenon of people's interaction with the wetlands, spanning from the dawn of human kind to the present.