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Achaemenid Persia and the Levant  

Josette Elayi

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
This articlefocuses on Achaemenid Persia’s rule of the Levant. It explains that the Levant fell under the control of Persia after Cyrus the Great defeated the last Babylonian ... More

Aegypto Capta: Augustus and the Annexation of Egypt  

Friederike Herklotz

Print publication date:
Jun 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article discusses the Ptolemaic legacy and Egyptian independence; the annexation of Egypt; and the first Roman prefects in Egypt. In contrast to earlier changes of ruler, the ... More

Age and Health  

Walter Scheidel

Print publication date:
Jun 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Roman Egypt is the only part of the ancient world where documentary evidence for the age composition of the general population has survived. Pertinent information is provided by extant ... More

Alexander the Great and the Seleucids in Iran  

Paul J. Kosmin

Print publication date:
Jun 2013
Online publication date:
Oct 2013
Alexander’s conquest of the Achaemenid Empire marks a watershed in Iranian history. The conquest and the Greek sources available that discuss it are assessed, as is Alexander’s treatment ... More

Alexandria  

Marjorie S. Venit

Print publication date:
Jun 2012
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
Distinguished in the first century bce as 'the first city of the civilized world', Alexandria still wore the accolade 'crown of all cities' as late as the fourth century bce. After Egypt's ... More

Ammon During the Iron Age II Period  

Randall W. Younker

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
This articleexamines some of the major developments in Ammon during the Iron Age II. It explains that the Ammonites became an important local polity on the central Jordanian plateau from ... More

Anatolia  

Karina Croucher

Print publication date:
Oct 2011
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article addresses Anatolia during the Neolithic, a time-span covering approximately 5,000 years, and a geographical region broadly covering modern-day central and southern Turkey. The ... More

Anatolia (Hittites) and the Levant  

Horst Klengel

Print publication date:
Nov 2013
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
This article focuses on the relationship between the Hittites of Anatolia and the people of the Levant. It explains that a new orientation of Near Eastern contact and trade emerged during ... More

Anatolia and the Transcaucasus Themes and Variations ca. 6400–1500 B.C.E.  

Antonio Sagona

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article examines Anatolian–Transcaucasian interactions spanning the Chalcolithic through the Bronze Age. The five millennia surveyed here have highlighted some broad patterns of ... More

Anatolia: The First Millennium B.C.E. in Historical Context  

G. Kenneth Sams

Print publication date:
Sep 2011
Online publication date:
Nov 2012
This article provides an overview of the first millennium BCE, drawing on a wide range of sources to put into perspective the sweeping changes of the Iron Age, with invasions by peoples of ... More

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