Art, Culture, and Pediatric Mental and Behavioral Health: An Interdisciplinary, Public Health Approach
Michael L. Penn and Philip Kojo Clarke
This article adopts an interdisciplinary public health approach to an analysis of the impact of rap music and culture on the mental and behavioral health of children and youth around the world. Its purpose, however, is to go beyond a review of some of the potentially deleterious effects of rap in order to explore the vital role that the arts can play in promoting the protection and development of the human spirit in the twenty-first century. This exploration requires examination of the capacities that are embodied in the notion of the human spirit. In the most basic sense, these capacities consist of the capacity to know, to love, and to will. This article also summarizes the epidemiological and public health research that seeks to link indices of pediatric health to an emerging global musical culture that caters specifically to young people. Finally, it outlines a role for the arts in the protection, development, and refinement of the human spirit.
Abigale D'Amore and Gareth Dylan Smith
The chapter discusses the centrality of music making to the lives of young people, framing teenagers’ out-of-school music making and attendant identity realization as leisure activities. It presents arguments for including in school music classrooms the music that students enjoy outside of school. It describes Musical Futures, an approach to informal music learning developed from understanding how popular musicians learn and adopting these practices for the music classroom. Citing examples of nationwide research on Musical Futures from secondary schools in England, the chapter balances benefits and challenges of adopting the approach, and considers implications of a focus in school on the process rather than the product of music making. The authors argue that framing and aspiring to music making as leisure through this particular pedagogical approach could stand to benefit students, teachers, schools, and society.
Samuel Leong, Pamela Burnard, Neryl Jeanneret, Bo Wah Leung, and Carole Waugh
This article presents six case studies from England, Australia, and Hong Kong, which illustrate the different ways creativity in music is defined and assessed by teachers and learners in various educational contexts. It considers the influence of educational policies on the assessment of musical creativity. It also examines the key features of music creativity assessment in order to draw parallels between various contexts. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for classroom practice.
This essay examines how undergraduate composition teachers assess growth in their students’ work, and shows how assessment frameworks (such as rubrics) can be useful for college composition students and professors alike. The essay presents interviews with university composition faculty to establish the assessment strategies generally used in lessons. Next, it looks critically at existing frameworks and assessment philosophies, considering their strengths and shortcomings for departments whose students are growing ever more diverse in musical style and voice. Finally, it considers the composer’s task of designing an assessment framework for his or her studio, including areas of concern and possible starting points for organization.
Michele L. Henry
This article discusses the current state of assessment of student learning in the choral classroom. Assessing in the choral classroom presents many curricular and logistical challenges, the group instructional format and the large number of students enrolled being chief among them. A lack of preparation for and tradition in assessment further serves to discourage choral educators from assessing appropriately. Most of the available information about choral assessment comes from anecdotal evidence and advocacy pieces; however, researchers are making significant strides, particularly in the development of performance rating scales and sight-reading assessment. Very little assessment of knowledge-based content or written expressions is occurring, either in the classroom or by researchers. University choral education faculty must make instruction in assessment techniques a priority within the undergraduate curriculum rather than part of graduate study, as new teachers are expected to assess their students almost immediately upon entering the classroom.
Assessment in General Music Education from Early Childhood through High School: A Review of Literature
Julie Kastner and Heather Shouldice
This literature review synthesizes and analyzes research on assessment in general music from early childhood through secondary schools. Literature has been analyzed for content being assessed, forms of assessment used, frequency of assessments, teachers’ perceptions and beliefs about assessment, and teachers’ professional development experiences and needs. Findings reveal that the content, forms, and practices of assessment vary according to the amount of autonomy teachers have in assessing their curricula, teachers’ beliefs about assessment, and national and state policies. This is particularly evident when comparing elementary general music teachers in the United States, who have little accountability for conducting assessments, and secondary general music teachers in countries like the United Kingdom and Australia, where they have required composition assessments. This analysis also reveals a need for greater professional development for general music teachers to develop strategies for implementing authentic, valid assessments and using assessment data to support and inform their teaching.
Joshua A. Russell
Assessment is a necessary and challenging task for many instrumental music educators. Limited instructional time, little to no assessment training, and large class sizes are but a few of the often cited reasons for the current state of assessment in instrumental music. Some steps, however, can be taken to improve student achievement in music through better assessment practices. In this chapter, I will focus on the assessment of student learning and achievement in the instrumental music classroom. I review the status of assessment, the differences between instrumental and choral assessment practices, rating scales, assessing musical knowledge, self-assessment, peer assessment, the psychological impact of assessment, technology in assessment, standardized tests, and the impact of case law on assessment. The chapter concludes with a series of general recommendations for improved assessment strategies.
Martin Fautley and Richard Colwell
The issue of assessment in music education in the secondary school is one of concern in a range of contexts, including teaching, learning, accountability, policy, and politics. In order to investigate assessment in the secondary school, there is a need to understand what assessment is; what the terminologies involved mean; what the implications of assessment are for learners, teachers, program organizers, administrators, legislators, and other interested stakeholders; and what constitutes secondary school music. This article considers the following issues in student assessment: the context of assessment, the uses and purposes of assessment, legitimizing assessment, and assessment and music pedagogy.
Christopher D. Azzara and Alden H. Snell, II
This article provides an overview of research on assessment of improvisation in music and offers suggestions for increasing its centrality in music teaching and learning. With listening, improvising, reading, and composing as context for music teaching and learning, it covers historical and philosophical foundations for, and research on, creativity and improvisation. The article’s synthesis of the literature focuses on assessment of ability to interact, group, compare, and anticipate and predict music while improvising. Six elements (repertoire, vocabulary, intuition, reason, reflection, and exemplars) contribute to a holistic and comprehensive creative process that inspires spontaneous and meaningful music making. The article concludes with recommendations for replication and extension of research to provide insight for improvisation assessment.
Mary L. Cohen, Laya H. Silber, Andrea Sangiorgio, and Valentina Iadeluca
This article examines music programs for at-risk youth and their implications for music education and community music practices. It defines key terms, examines theoretical frameworks related to teaching at-risk youth, and describes practical applications of these frameworks. It discusses philosophies for addressing deviant behavior and controlling modes imposed from the outside to systems of cooperation. It is argued that cooperative systems are effective in facilitating music-making by for at-risk youth. The article concludes with implications for music education, suggestions for advocacy considerations, reflective questions, and a list of additional sources.