‘The Unburied Past: Walking with Ghosts of the 1940s’ tracks the work of five contemporary poets: Andrew Crozier, John Goodby, Rod Mengham, Colin Simms, and John Wilkinson. It situates the texts and practices of these poets in relation to two aspects: their poetry of movement, notably walking, in various landscapes; and their relationships to modernist predecessors from the 1940s. These predecessors are Basil Bunting, J. F. Hendry, Humphrey Jennings, Lynette Roberts, and Dylan Thomas. The essay does not propose a simple legacy of perambulation—but rather seeks to find how and why the various contemporary poets use parts of a late modernist inheritance to create works that allow for trauma, disorientation, traces of the pastoral, and other versions of productively getting lost.
Modern Shakespeare biographies give special weight to details of Shakespeare’s life supported by reference to archival materials. The ‘documentary life’ records only those life-events in which the legal profession, church, and state have a vested interest, producing a ‘documentary life’ with a particular, predictable, shape—producing Shakespeare as a son, husband, and father, a Stratford resident, a property owner, and a sharer in a theatrical company. But this ‘documentary life’ obscures an earlier biographical tradition which is routinely dismissed as apocryphal. This essay aims to take seriously the seventeenth-century tellings of Shakespeare’s life, analysing them not for their ability to tally with the documentary traces but rather for what they say and where and how they say it. They provide a remarkably consistent characterization, and one that is often intriguingly at odds with the supposedly ‘authentic’, documentary Shakespeare.
This article explains the connection of the New England Unitarianism to the emergence and development of Transcendentalism and the circumstances in which the emergence took place. The article states that all of the members of the Transcendentalist movement were affiliated at some point with New England Unitarian churches. Some were even Unitarians throughout their lives; some started in another faith and became Unitarians. Most of the leading male Transcendentalists spent part or all of their careers as Unitarian ministers. Transcendentalists looked upon Unitarian leaders as mentors. The religious descendants of the Unitarians, the Unitarian Universalists, take pride in Transcendentalism as part of their particular denominational heritage. The article also talks about the many dimensions of the relationship between Transcendentalists and “mainstream Unitarians”. One significant theological difference between mainstream Unitarians and Transcendentalists was their divergent views of the significance and historicity of biblical miracles, particularly the miracles of Jesus.
This chapter focuses on the development of the novel genre in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It begins with a background on the founding of the Union and the beginnings of Emirati literature, including the novel, and continues with a discussion of novels produced in the first three decades of the UAE. The chapter then shows that the Emirati novel began to take a new, bolder, and more experimental turn during the first decade of the new millennium, citing works that primarily tackle issues related to women’s status in society. It also considers trends in the novel genre since 2010, a period of transition for the Emirati novel.
Carol N. Fadda
This chapter discusses the history of the Arab American novel, which dates back to the early part of the twentieth century. Since the 1990s, the genre has been flourishing at a rapid pace. Today, there are roughly 3.6 million Arab Americans in the United States, many of whom come from the Levant area. After providing a brief historical background on Arab immigration, the chapter traces the development of the Arab American novel during the three main literary periods: early twentieth century, 1930s–1960s, and late 1960s/early 1970s–the present. It cites novels that portray border crossings and transnational mobility among multiple Arab and US locations, as well as works that tackle anti-Arab racism and Islamophobia before and after 9/11.
Alan H. Nelson
Oxford and Cambridge, England's two historical universities, along with the Inns of Court in London, supplied significant impetus to the drama of early modern England. The University of Oxford traces its origins to 1230, the University of Cambridge to 1260. The two universities are best thought of, however, as federations of constituent colleges, each of which had its own history and character. All four Inns of Court, which are not ‘inns’ in the usual meaning of the word but voluntary societies dedicated to the practice and teaching of English common law, trace their histories back to the fourteenth century. The four inns are Gray's Inn, the Inner Temple, Lincoln's Inn, and the Middle Temple. Up to 1642, records survive of some 384 entertainment events at Cambridge, 185 at Oxford, and 125 at the Inns of Court. Cambridge and Oxford colleges went on performing plays until the 1640s, while the Inns of Court turned to revels and masques.
This article examines the cultural influence of William Shakespeare’s tragedies on Australasia and the Pacific. To this end, it analyses a range of live and filmed performances, along with the adaptive responses of writers, audiences, and critics to the tragedies. It begins by considering the presence of Shakespeare’s Complete Works on Captain James Cook’s Endeavour when it sailed the Pacific in 1769–1770 before turning to the first recorded Australian Shakespeare: a staging of Henry IV in Robert Sidaway’s Sydney theatre in 1800. It then looks at other works such as those by Charles and Ellen Kean, Ngaio Marsh, and John Bell as well as works that have become part of Australasian literature, including Randolph Stow’s Lear-themed 1958 novel To the Island. It also discusses a number of adaptations of Shakespearean tragedy and concludes with a commentary on Australasian and Pacific responses to tragedy that were generated by—or reflecting the perspectives of—indigenous populations.
This chapter explores how certain forms of desire are silenced by culture and convention, and how these desires, whilst they may be expressed through glance or action, can be difficult to express in verbal form. Chief among these desires are ones predicated on same-sex attraction, and both male homosexual and lesbian desires—and attitudes and legislation relating to them—are placed in the context of changing attitudes towards sexuality in Victorian society. The chapter also examines forms of desire that are manifested through such activities as flogging or the consumption of pornography. But the main emphasis falls on queer sexualities and relationships and on their expression in fiction and poetry. The idea that style itself may be understood as a form of queer expression is investigated, and the warning issued that we must be careful not to project our own twenty-first-century desires and forms of identification onto Victorian practices.
This chapter studies W.H. Auden's ‘Spain 1937’, which shows an awareness of the problems of its subject that it translates into its own structures. It then determines why the poem's revisions represent more than biographical and ideological turns in the oeuvre, and also tries to show how the poem signifies an attempt to simultaneously write and unwrite war.
By the 1950s, distinct strands of rural and urban Irish theatre were prompted by the clash of traditional mores with major social and political changes in Ireland. Three playwrights, M. J. Molloy, John B. Keane, and Hugh Leonard, came to represent the rural and urban sensibility of theatre at that time. All three were interested in how traditional Irish values and practices fitted in with the Ireland emerging around them. The ways in which the three playwrights reacted to an urbanizing, modernizing culture illustrates how the theatre of their generation was conditioned by a national perspective that was failing to assimilate profound societal change. Molloy, essentially conservative, promoted ideas of self-sacrifice, while Keane implicitly endorsed a liberal humanist protest against repression. Hugh Leonard’s satires on suburbia wrote out rural Ireland as a thing of the past, although he retained some vestiges of the country kitchen play in his work.