This chapter focuses on the development of the novel genre in Tunisia. In 1881, Tunisia was transferred from Ottoman rule to French Protectorate, with important implications for the country linguistically and culturally. The difficulties of publishing and the development of nationalism under colonial rule influenced linguistic choices as well as the themes of the novels produced. In the post-independence era, nationalism, secularism, women’s rights, and patriotism became the themes of Tunisian literature in both Arabic and French. Censorship continued to be an issue for writers. This chapter examines the beginnings of the Arabic novel in Tunisia and considers works by Arabophone women writers. Finally, it looks at a number of Francophone novels, as well as novels published after the 2011 revolution.
This article examines John Lyly's prose style, which has often been described using the term ‘euphism’. The term was derived from the hero of Lyly's two prose fictions, Euphues. The anatomy of wyt (1578) and Euphues and his England (1580). It is an evolving mode, which developed in the course of Lyly's own work and in the work of his imitators in order to accommodate the changing agendas of those speaking and writing it, and the genres in which it is placed. Lyly's style provided the environment in which printed prose fiction was established in the 1580s; euphuism was a new way of dressing up language and writing for fun.
A long and rich scholarly tradition has established that twentieth-century American poetry responds constitutively to Transcendentalism. And also, as the article explains, most scholars of Transcendentalism and American poetry have focused on Emerson and subsequent male poets. The article suggests ways to complicate and to extend our understanding of the poetic resonance of the Transcendentalisms of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, and Henry David Thoreau. The article explains that since the major Transcendentalists were white and culturally privileged, one must be careful not simply to reinscribe their voices by invoking marginalized ones as their descendants. While exploring permutations of Transcendentalism in subsequent American poetry, the article also emphasizes its fundamental concern with a politically ethical aesthetics that calls us to imagine the poetically beautiful in terms of the politically just.
Without a strong native tradition of drama, theatre in the Irish language, initially associated with the Gaelic League, has been slow to develop and has suffered from many frustrations and setbacks. One of the landmark early productions was Casadh an tSúgáin by the League’s founder Douglas Hyde (1901). The Abbey did not do much initially to foster Irish-language theatre, which has functioned intermittently in Dublin, with An Comhar Drámaíochta in the 1920s and An Damer, which produced Máiréad Ní Ghráda’s An Triail (1964). More central to the tradition has been An Taibhdhearc, established in Galway in 1928, which continues to be Ireland only dedicated Irish-language theatre. While there have been outstanding plays in Irish produced in the Abbey, the future of the tradition seems to depend more on small adventurous companies such as Fíbín, Setanta, and the Belfast-based Aisling Ghéar.
This article analyzes Spenser's Two Cantos of Mutabilitie. In 1609, a decade after the poet's death, the six completed books of The Faerie Queene were published in a large, folio edition edited, perhaps, by Spenser's scholarly friend at Cambridge, Gabriel Harvey. To these six books were added two more cantos and a two-stanza fragment, under the following head-note: ‘Two Cantos of Mutabilitie, which, both for Forme and Matter, appeare to be parcel of some following Booke of The Faerie Queene, under the Legend of Constancie. Never before imprinted’. The Mutabilitie Cantos were likely written in the twenty months between Spenser's return to Ireland, early in 1597, and the end of September 1598. The metaphysical issues of identity, continuance, and change are raised in the Mutabilitie Cantos from a naturalistic point of view — Nature is the judge of them — with no reference, until the final stanza, to Christian hope or divine revelation.
Through an analysis of the review section of the BBC’s The Listener, this article re-examines the frequently employed notion of a mainstream/avant-garde split in poetry of the 1970s. It explores the way in which the magazine and its reviewers formed a powerful institution, capable of determining the success or failure of poets. A number of debates in The Listener during the early 1970s reveal a deep-seated anxiety about the state of poetry. Concerned by the large number of published poets from various educational and socio-economic backgrounds, a number of poet-scholars, such as Anthony Thwaite, Donald Davie, and John Fuller, predicted the development of an insurmountable rift between two ‘rival camps’: avant-garde and mainstream. However, by following the heated and controversial debate that arose in 1973 after Davie’s particularly scathing review of Philip Larkin’s Oxford Anthology of Twentieth Century English Verse, a much more complex and individualized sense of fracture seems to emerge. As such, the article argues that this supposed ‘binary division’ forms a curious smokescreen, obscuring the chaotic and directionless wrangling that was really going on in poetry of the decade.
That typography is a form of embodiment is obvious. Like writing, it offers material markers for sounds. On the early modern stage, punctuation marks were given personality, either adjectivally—as when Marston’s Antonio tells his beloved, ‘we’ll point [punctuate] our speech / With amorous kissing, kissing commas’—or physically, as when a character is named Dash in Lording Barry’s Ram Alley (Q 1611). For us today, etcetera is an abbreviation indicating the continuation of properties in a list. But in the early modern period etcetera embodied a variety of things: acoustic, physiological, temporal, rhetorical, grammatical. Only one of its multiple uses survives today: the abbreviation. This essay explores the complex history of this creatively used abbreviation.
Gregory L. Reece
This chapter analyzes four science fiction themes common to a variety of SF religions, including L. Ron Hubbard’s Church of Scientology, Heaven’s Gate, the Raelian Movement, the Unarius Academy of Science, and the Urantia Brotherhood, as well as to many figures in the UFO contactee movement such as George Adamski, Truman Bethurum, Billy Meier, George Van Tassel, and Orfeo Angelucci. These themes mirror the central themes of science fiction and include contact with extraterrestrial entities through encounters with flying saucers or UFOs, channeling, and past-life regression; narratives that place these encounters in the context of extraterrestrial civilizations and cosmic histories; emphasis on the evolution of the human species; and focus on futuristic or alien technologies that promise alleviation of human problems or assistance with positive human evolution.
This chapter discusses Paul Muldoon as a war poet, showing that while Muldoon is not normally connected to war poetry, his approach to violence is strangely direct. It also tries to study how obliquity functions in Muldoon's early poems, determining that Muldoon is able to draw together the surface incoherencies of the poem towards a single, specific theme, which is the relation of the individual to history.
This chapter charts the relationship between scripture and the anti-atheist writings of the seventeenth century. It was legally impossible to declare one’s atheism openly, but atheist views were framed and explored in literature, particularly in the drama, where atheist characters can be safely killed, made to look foolish, or repent for the views they have expressed. This chapter first explores the misquotation or denying of the Bible in the drama, and other literary forms, where such a position is deniable as an expression of the author’s own beliefs. It moves on to examine how atheism is voiced in the anti-atheist literature. In many cases, writers against atheism studiously avoid drawing on the Bible, preferring to argue from Nature or philosophy. Where they do occur, appeals to the Bible cluster around key texts, especially Psalm 14 and Romans 1: 18–22, which resonate across a range of literary and theological writings.