Michael H. Whitworth
The chapter considers the dates at which modernism might be taken to have started and ended, and the ideological and aesthetic judgements we implicitly make when we periodize the movement. It examines the history of the idea of 1922 as modernism’s annus mirabilis, and its consequences for the modernist canon. It asks about the value of tying aesthetic modernism to socio-historical modernity. It presents a taxonomy of the different modernities currently in use, and examines how modernity was treated by the New Criticism and how it has figured in feminist and Marxist accounts of modernism. It concludes by examining transnational accounts of modernism, and investigating the assumptions about modernism and modernity that they involve.
This article shifts the conversation about Judy Blume's Are You There, God? It's Me, Margaret (1970) from the controversy over its discussions of puberty to the postwar debate over American identity engaged in by popular sociologists such as David Riesman. It also argues that Margaret's struggles with religious identity may be read as an early meditation on a post-ethnic identity widely embraced today. Blume's recognition of her childhood connection to Riesman's work is telling, for Riesman focuses recurrently on children throughout his book. In Are You There God?, Blume often seems to argue with Riesman as she develops characters and situations that demonstrate constant negotiations of the tension between individualism and conformity in American identity rather than simply illustrating them. Margaret's forays into varying religions are both funny and touching. The enduring popularity of Are You There God? has much to do with the universal interest in puberty.
This chapter proposes an understanding of trans-Pacific Chinese literature not as yet another uncritical expansion of the territory of Chinese literature, but as an examination of the relationship between Chinese-language literature and the trans-Pacific world(s) it makes, as well as that between the literature and the real worlds of the Pacific societies it touches. Whereas “Asia Pacific” as a regional concept is inseparable from Euro-American expansions in the region, trans-Pacific Chinese literature does not necessarily reproduce this dominant regional thinking. Through reading narratives of the Cold War written in different locations of the Asia Pacific, this chapter shows that thinking comparatively about Chinese literature from disparate locations of the Asia Pacific can engender alternative regional imagination.
Peter J. Manning
Wordsworth remained compelled by narrative forms such as the ballad and the tale. He often achieved his characteristic effects by playing against conventional narrative expectations, a manoeuvre made possible by his understanding of the conventions he was then revising or rejecting. Later years show a more complex relationship to prevailing tastes. The White Doe of Rylstone draws from Wordsworth’s relationship to the ballad traditions, accentuated by the success of Walter Scott’s Border Minstrelsy and The Lay of the Last Minstrel. Later works show Wordsworth experimenting with Arthurian or Miltonic materials and with romantic tales set in eastern Europe: The Russian Fugitive and The Armenian Lady’s Love. These lightenings of Wordsworth’s style reflect his engagement with the annuals and his attention to the literary marketplace; they need to be read not simply against the ‘Great Decade’ but also laterally against early Tennyson and popular verse of the late 1820s and 1830s.
This chapter explores the history of the term ‘New Woman’ and its use by women writers and their supporters and detractors in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Drawing on periodicals and the work of novelists, short story writers, and playwrights from Schreiner to Shaw, it considers the various positions embraced by the term and relates the motivations and approaches of the men and women who wrote about the New Woman to wider social and political concerns. Exploring the treatment of the New Woman in the novel, her pivotal role in the development of the short story, her presence on the stage, and popular representations, the chapter also examines the Edwardian sharpening of questions of class, labour, and suffrage and the ways in which this informed expressions of feminism. The chapter concludes by positioning the New Woman in relation to both modernism and a more pragmatic aesthetic.
A pamphlet called the Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce appeared on the London bookstalls, anonymous and unlicensed, advocating an ideal of marriage in which the wife existed to be the husband's companion. John Milton tried to repair the damage by a series of further works: the Judgment of Martin Bucer, Tetrachordon, and Colasterion. Milton's divorce tracts tend to receive an eager critical welcome as crucial in the formation of his progressive views about individual liberty. Milton's vision of transmuting the classical and humanist same-sex model of friendship into marriage was dismissed. His expectations of women were seen as simply too high for nature. It was though that Milton's divorce laws would be the ruin of husbands and children, and with them the social order.
This article examines so-called protest novels in the U.S.A. It discusses Ramona, the Uncle Tom's Cabin of the Indian, and compares present-day protest novels with those of the nineteenth century. The article analyzes the social-protest literature authored and/or adapted by Harriet Beecher Stowe, Helen Hunt Jackson, and José Martí, and argues that the Stowe–Jackson text network suggests a way for the comparatively minded to think both within and beyond comparison.
The Globe was William Shakespeare's workplace for the ten years when he wrote his greatest plays. From As You Like It in 1599, through Hamlet in 1600 and the other great tragedies, with the later Roman plays to Cymbeline and The Winter's Tale in 1609, it was the playhouse for which he designed all his plays up to The Tempest, the first and only play he wrote for the company's indoor theatre, the Blackfriars. As the workplace where his greatest plays were first staged, the Globe has come to stand as the frame inside which Shakespeare painted his greatest works. In reality, except for ten short years, it never deserved that unique status. From its foundation in 1594, the Shakespeare company which built the Globe regarded outdoor playhouses as their location only for summertime. They always preferred indoor places to play at through the winter. The social range in the audiences at the Globe ran from earls to beggars. This article traces the history of the Globe, including its design and construction, archaeology, and dimensions.
This chapter presents a broad historiographic sketch of events happening in other parts of the world, during the half a century or so on either side of the Holinshed, focusing on East Asia and the Islamic world (including Mughal India). It provides a brief landscape of the Eurasian historiographic world c.1580, and offers some comparisons between English, Western European, and Asian forms of history writing, and the political and social contexts within which they arose. The chapter concludes by citing two reasons to study trends in historiography around the world. First, individuals doing careful analysis of Holinshed may see the text of the chronicles in a slightly different light, just as new world discoveries in the sixteenth century forced a rethinking and adjustment of the Judeo-Christian master narrative. Second, we can glean a broader understanding of many of the issues confronting late sixteenth-century historians and their readers in England by the commonality of questions of style and form, of the conditions of writing, of the relation between orality and text, of the development of scepticism, and of the tension between the individual author, collaborative writing teams, and court or State influence over the representation of the past.
This article combines cultural history with the insights of psychoanalytic theory, reading Maurice Sendak's Caldecott-winning and controversial Where the Wild Things Are (1963) in relation to his larger oeuvre. It reviews Where the Wild Things Are as a psychoanalytic treatise in picture-book form. Sendak's achievement in Wild Things comes not only from personal genius but also from his complex engagement with psychological discourse. Wild Things has been embraced as a psychological primer, a story about anger and its management through fantasy; it is also a text in which echoes of Freud are audible. It is furthermore a highly successful experiment in picture-book psychology. The Wolf Man's dream helped make Freud famous and came to signify his expertise, and so too with Sendak's dream of the wolf boy. Queerness, in Sendak's case, might apply to everything about his life and work that is nonconformist, difficult, or melancholic.