Erika T. Lin
The morris dance in The Witch of Edmonton, first staged in London in 1621, leveraged audience affect to transform seemingly subversive sexual desires into socially central festive sport. The play tells of a woman accused of witchcraft, a bigamous marriage ending in murder, a clown playing the hobbyhorse, and the devil appearing in the form of a black dog. Drawing on sixteenth- and seventeenth-century parish records, legal documents, and pamphlet literature, this chapter demonstrates how the morris episodes in the play repeatedly align cross-dressing, bestiality, and sodomy not so much with sexual perversion as with festive inversion. Yoking transgressive sexuality to stage performance, early modern theater ironically generated a field of cultural sanction for its own practices during the crucial era of its formal institutionalization. Marginalized eroticisms and queer desires were not merely represented onstage but were structurally constitutive of commercial theater and essential to its establishment as a profession.
With a Little Help from my Friends, Family, and Fans: DIY, Participatory Culture, and Social Capital in Music Crowdfunding
Almost all DIY practices imply some form of collaboration, based on social networks and social capital. The web offers new tools and opportunities to articulate both social networking and the search for and mobilization of resources to develop specific projects. Crowdfunding represents one such practice, encouraged by comments celebrating the advantages for musicians in connecting directly with their public, without having to rely on the traditional music industry to finance projects. Nevertheless, this requires considerable skills and resources, not equally distributed among musicians. The chapter examines the management of social networks and social capital by young musicians who have autonomously planned, designed, and managed crowdfunding campaigns. It focuses on the relationship between types of social relations and potential benefits, on the work and resources required to build and mobilize social capital, and on the advantages and drawbacks experienced by musicians.
This article appears in the Oxford Handbook of Sound and Image in Digital Media edited by Carol Vernallis, Amy Herzog, and John Richardson. This article discusses recent experimental nonfiction films about workers and industry. Since the cinema’s 1995 centenary, a growing number of films have been responding to the state of labor in the contemporary economy, in which industrial manufacturing has been largely replaced by global finance capital. The article analyzes four examples: Workers Leaving the Factory (Dubai) (Ben Russell, 2008), Exit (Sharon Lockhart, 2008), Foreign Parts (Véréna Paravel and J. P. Sniadecki, 2010), and The Unstable Object (Daniel Eisenberg, 2011). Mobilizing a style we might call “conceptual realism,” these films explore themes of labor in the face of ongoing crises in global capitalism. Utilizing a digitally informed observational aesthetic shaped by long takes and stationary camerawork, this paradoxical stylistic clarity works not in the service of establishing objectivity or a stable truth, but in the spirit of bearing witness to the innumerable experiences of contemporary labor that lie beyond recognition.
This article appears in the Oxford Handbook of Sound and Image in Digital Media edited by Carol Vernallis, Amy Herzog, and John Richardson. This essays looks at ways in which documentary films have, over the course of their history, appropriated new technology in their pursuit of greater realism. It takes as its primary focus the use of lightweight, handheld digital cameras by Agnes Varda in The Gleaners and I (2000) and Trinh T. Minh-ha in The Fourth Dimension (2001), arguing that Varda uses the new technology to extend her practice of cinécriture, viewing the camera as an extension of her hand, whereas Minh-ha uses it to challenge the coherence of representation, breaking it down into discrete pixels.
This chapter examines the early rise of mobile and social music as mediated by the iPhone and the “app revolution” it has fostered, chronicling select mobile music work of the author as Assistant Professor at Stanford University’s Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA) and as Co-founder of Smule, a startup company devoted to music-making on the iPhone. Through three case studies, the chapter investigates how Smule’s initial “social musical artifacts” took advantage of the intersection of different technologies in the iPhone to provide experiences that are expressive at both the personal and social levels. These case studies include Ocarina, an expressive wind instrument for the iPhone, Sonic Lighter, a virtual lighter with some unconventional features, and Leaf Trombone: World Stage, designed to be a game-like musical instrument with crowd-based social interaction.
Qualitative research has been significantly used for investigating complex and multifaceted issues regarding cultural diversity and the use of world musics in the school and the community. This article explores such qualitative studies that occurred in the United States or Canada and were published from 1980 to 2011. Included are 38 studies, which are presented chronologically and alphabetically within the following six categories: (a) elementary school (Gr. 1-5); (b) middle school (Gr. 6-8); (c) high school (Gr. 9-12); (d) higher education; (e) an unclear or combined educational level (elementary-university); and (f) a community context. These studies focused on the rich and diverse views and experiences of teachers, students, and administrators with regard to cultural diversity and the teaching of world musics; examined exemplary teaching approaches, ensembles, and programs; explored innovative approaches in music teacher education; and brought attention to issues of cultural identity, culturally responsive teaching, and antiracial pedagogy.
This chapter discusses three videogames in which the entire “world” and gameplay center on music or a certain style of music. The main focus is on the questions of how the “narratives” and “worlds” created rely on music, how this relationship can be addressed and analyzed, and how the music can influence the overall experience of the player. In order to find answers to these questions, it is necessary to outline an approach for analysis and define terminology. This chapter suggests that the application of a certain music and its style serves to establish a music-based gameplay gestalt, based on ideas by Craig Lindley, giving the player not only useful information, but also an active feeling of realness.
Chapter 47 begins with a discussion of the question, “What Is Opera?” for the purpose of defining a platform for the historiography of opera. It then explores theories of genre, criticism, and biography that tend to obscure accepted definitions, leading to a deeper analysis of the relationship between a work and its creator. The central portion of the chapter concerns the fluidity of the operatic work, focusing on examples by Rossini, Verdi, Bellini, Donizetti, and several works of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. The central issue of the chapter is the need for historians to find ways to address opera’s “complete history,” including the interrelationships of composition, performance, and revisions when writing a historical narrative for opera.
This article examines censorship in pre-unification Italy by focusing on opera composer Giuseppe Verdi. Before explaining how Verdi’s thorough involvement in the creative process of his works makes him a central figure in the discourse on censorship of the period, the article analyzes what he meant when he uttered the words “From Nabucco onward I haven’t had, one can say, an hour of peace. Sixteen years in prison!” in a May 12, 1858 letter to his close friend, the Milanese countess Clarina Maffei. More specifically, it discusses the censorship of one of his operas, Gustavo III, and its musical implications. It also considers Verdi’s reactions to the censorship of several of his works.
The tradition of music and song in freedom and liberation movements is a long one. However, each generation begins to craft new songs and new music to address its own social context and stylistic tastes. From the slave chants of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to the protest songs of the 1960s, there has been a thread of resistance and freedom in the music of African Americans. However, one of the most generative and creative forces—hip-hop music and culture—has been popularized to represent depravity, misogyny, racism, and homophobia. This chapter explores the revolutionary and resistance roots of hip-hop and describes how teachers might leverage the genre’s attraction to engage youth in social justice teaching and learning.