Yvette Guilbert and the Revaluation of the Chanson Populaire and Chanson Ancienne during the Third Republic, 1889–1914
This article identifies the ideological subtexts that pushed Yvette Guilbert to create supposedly new repertoire that was dedicated to the celebration of the chanson populaire and the chanson ancienne. It looks at how Guilbert defined her conception of the “canon” of the chanson through its process of historicization, and examines Guilbert's career up to 1914. This article also studies her early pedagogical career, in light of the other modern pedagogical experiences that were developed in France.
Yvonne Rainer enjoys a position in the twentieth-century canon of dance pioneers that is built more on discourse than repertoire, ideas rather than choreographic works. This chapter reconsiders the legacy of Rainer by locating the substance of her innovations between several art forms, including dance and film, and taking her “medial” work Lives of Performers (1972) as its case study. Informed by the historic and aesthetic milieu of mid-twentieth-century New York interdisciplinary art, Rainer’s project, spanning live performance and moving image between 1965 and 1972, mapped new parameters for screendance post-Maya Deren. Lives of Performers tests disciplinary categories through its preoccupation with destabilizing dominant structures of narrative, authorship, and spectatorship. Rainer achieves this by mobilizing an aesthetics of difference that owes much to the theories of John Cage and is characterized by openness, decentering, random orders, collage, contingency, multiplicity, nonhierarchical orders, and a complication of the art/life divide.
This article appears in the Oxford Handbook of New Audiovisual Aesthetics edited by John Richardson, Claudia Gorbman, and Carol Vernallis. Animators and visual music artists have long experimented with technological devices to explore the image–sound relationship, often innovating new ways of composing motion in time and space. For Len Lye this involved pioneering methods of animation and exploring the material qualities of organic materials such as film and metal, creating a substantial body of handmade animations that continue to affect audiences and inspire contemporary practitioners. Lye’s work provided the inspiration and raw materials for the development of Zig Zag, an homage to Lye, which integrated traditional musical instruments with digital media, remixed and projected visual imagery, and improvised theatrical performance. This complex process of remediation is discussed in relation to the extracinematic animation of both Lye’s sculptures and the theatrical performances. Extending the term “animation” is fundamental to understanding the way Zig Zag is a reanimation of the latent material life force embodied in Lye’s resting sculptures.