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Atmosphere and Outer Space  

Ian H. Rowlands

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
What is ‘atmosphere’ and what is ‘outer space’? The term ‘atmosphere’ is sometimes used interchangeably with ‘air’. Moreover, it is often assumed that ‘outer space’ is simply the area ... More

Biological Resources  

Rosemary Rayfuse

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
In the past century, a large number of bilateral, regional, and global agreements have been adopted relating to the protection, preservation, conservation, and management of the Earth's ... More

Brazilian Climate Change Law  

Karen Alvarenga Oliveira

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter examines the climate change policy of Brazil. In 2010 at the Sixteenth Conference of Parties in Cancún, Brazil announced its voluntary national target of significantly ... More

Business  

Steven R. Ratner

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Business has a central role in international environmental law. Both treaties and treatises regard private economic actors as secondary players, and see states as the overwhelmingly ... More

Carbon Capture and Storage  

Richard Macrory

Print publication date:
Jul 2017
Online publication date:
Jan 2017
The capture and long-term storage of carbon dioxide from power plants and other industrial installations may prove a key technology in climate change abatement strategies. Regulatory ... More

Carbon Leakage and the Migration of Private CO2 Emitters to other Jurisdictions  

Andrew Shoyer, Jung-ui Sul, and Colette van der Ven

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter examines the phenomenon of carbon leakage, which is an increase in carbon emissions as a result of businesses moving to other states without carbon reduction measures. ... More

The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico  

David Freestone and Clive Schofield

Print publication date:
Mar 2015
Online publication date:
Jun 2016
This chapter assesses the legal regime of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico. It first examines regional maritime claims before reviewing marine activities, environment, and resources ... More

Changing Role of The State  

Thilo Marauhn

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
Since the early days of modern public international law, the state has been the most important subject thereof. However, today, it is neither the sole, nor necessarily the primary, actor ... More

Climate Change and Damages  

Christina Voigt

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter explores the legal understanding of climate change damages in public international law. It shows that international law has been dealing with transboundary damages since its ... More

Climate Change and Disaster Law  

Daniel A. Farber

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter looks into a specific dimension of adaptation to climate change—disaster risks. It reviews the prospects for increases in disaster risk due to climate change and considers ... More

Climate Change and International Law beyond the UNFCCC  

Alan Boyle and Navraj Singh Ghaleigh

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter discusses the various shortcomings of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Kyoto Protocol. As a ‘framework convention’, the UNFCCC itself ... More

Climate Change Law and Policy in India  

Deepa Badrinarayana

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter discusses India’s role in international climate law and its domestic law on climate change, and demonstrates the limits of its legal position in addressing climate-related ... More

Climate Change Law and Policy in the European Union  

Sanja Bogojević

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter is concerned with EU’s climate change law and its impact on climate change action at a global level. It investigates whether the international climate change regime ‘tightens’ ... More

Climate Change Policy and Law in China  

Alex L. Wang

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter outlines China’s developing climate change response. The nation is the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases and the largest consumer of energy. China’s engagement in ... More

Climate Change-related Displacement of Persons  

Jane McAdam

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter examines the scope of existing international law to address ‘climate change-related displacement’, a term used to describe movement where the impacts of climate change affect ... More

Climate, Oceans, and the Law of Special and General Adaptation  

U. Rashid Sumaila

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter describes the literature of adaptation law in the context of international ocean governance. Adaptation law consists of rules aimed at minimizing the social costs associated ... More

Common Areas, Common Heritage, and Common Concern  

Jutta Brunnée

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
This article examines three concepts that have emerged to respond to collective environmental concerns:‘common areas’, ‘common heritage’, and ‘common concern’. As will become apparent, the ... More

Common Concern of Humankind  

Frederiech Soltau

Print publication date:
Mar 2016
Online publication date:
Nov 2016
This chapter examines the various common concerns of humankind. The concept has found its most explicit reference in relation to climate change, in the United Nations Framework Convention ... More

Compliance Procedures  

Jan Klabbers

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer was among the first international agreements in which a specific non-compliance procedure was envisaged, and it is ... More

Compliance Theory: Compliance, Effectiveness, and Behaviour Change in International Environmental Law  

Ronald B. Mitchell

Print publication date:
Aug 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2012
International lawyers and legal scholars often assess the effects of international environmental agreements (IEAs) in terms of the extent to which states comply with their commitments. ... More

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