Dan Zahavi (ed.)
The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Phenomenology presents twenty-eight chapters on the field of contemporary phenomenology, and gives an overview of the type of work and range of topics found and discussed in contemporary phenomenology. The chapters aim to articulate and develop original theoretical perspectives. Some of them are concerned with issues and questions typical and distinctive of phenomenological philosophy, while others address questions familiar to analytic philosophers, but do so with arguments and ideas taken from phenomenology. Some offer detailed analyses of concrete phenomena; others take a more comprehensive perspective and seek to outline and motivate the future direction of phenomenology. The book aims to provide a definitive guide to what is currently going on in phenomenology. It includes discussions of such diverse topics as intentionality, embodiment, perception, naturalism, temporality, self-consciousness, language, knowledge, ethics, politics, art and religion, and will make it clear that phenomenology, far from being a tradition of the past, is alive and in a position to make valuable contributions to contemporary thought.
David Estlund (ed.)
Even though political philosophy has a long tradition, it is much more than the study of old and great treatises. Contemporary philosophers continue to press new arguments on old and timeless questions, but also to propose departures and innovations. The field changes over time, and new work inevitably responds both to events in the world and to the directions of thought itself. This volume includes twenty-two new pieces by leaders in the field on both perennial and emerging topics of keen interest to contemporary political philosophers. In addition to longstanding issues such as authority, equality, freedom, and democracy, there are articles on less classical topics such as race, historical injustice, deliberation, money and politics, global justice, and ideal and non-ideal theory. The introductory article briefly situates this snapshot in a broader view of developments in political philosophy in the last forty years, and looks forward to future developments. The articles not only survey but provide provocations to think further about the questions, puzzles, and practical problems that animate recent work in political philosophy.
John Marenbon (ed.)
This publication is intended to show the links between the philosophy written in the Middle Ages and that of today. Essays by over twenty medieval specialists, who are also familiar with contemporary discussions, explore areas in logic and philosophy of language, metaphysics, epistemology, moral psychology ethics, aesthetics, political philosophy, and philosophy of religion. Each topic has been chosen because it is of present philosophical interest, but a more-or-less-similar set of questions was also discussed in the Middle Ages. No party-line has been set about the extent of the similarity. Some writers (e.g. Panaccio on Universals and Cesalli on States of Affairs) argue that there are close continuities. Others (e.g. Thom on Logical Form and Pink on Freedom of the Will) stress the differences. All, however, share the aim of providing new analyses of medieval texts, and of writing in a manner that is clear and comprehensible to philosophers who are not medieval specialists. The volume, which begins with eleven articles looking at the history of medieval philosophy period by period, and region by region, constitutes a wide-ranging and up-to-date chronological survey of medieval philosophy. All four traditions—Greek, Latin, Islamic, and Jewish (in Arabic, and in Hebrew)—are considered, and the Latin tradition is traced from late antiquity through to the seventeenth century and beyond.
Desmond M. Clarke and Catherine Wilson (eds)
The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy in Early Modern Europe is a survey of the development of philosophy between the middle of the sixteenth century and the early eighteenth century, by twenty-six leading scholars, who cover the following five areas: metaphysics and natural philosophy; the mind, the passions, and aesthetics; epistemology, logic, mathematics, and language; ethics and political philosophy; religion. The period between the publication of Copernicus's De Revolutionibus and Berkeley's reflections on Newton and Locke saw one of the most fundamental changes in the history of our way of thinking about the universe. This radical transformation of worldview was partly a response to what we now call the Scientific Revolution; it was equally a reflection of political changes that were no less fundamental, which included the establishment of nation-states and some of the first attempts to formulate a theory of international rights and justice. The Reformation and its aftermath undermined the apparent unity of the Christian church in Europe and challenged both religious beliefs that had been accepted for centuries and the interpretation of the Bible on which they had been based. The Handbook surveys a number of the most important developments in the philosophy of the period, as these are expounded both in texts that have since become very familiar and in other philosophical texts that are undeservedly less well-known. It also reaches beyond the philosophy to make evident the fluidity of the boundary with science, and to consider the impact on philosophy of historical and political events — explorations, revolutions and reforms, inventions and discoveries.
Robert Batterman (ed.)
The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Physics provides an overview of many of the topics that currently engage philosophers of physics. It surveys new issues and the problems that have become a focus of attention in recent years, and also provides up-to-date discussions of the still very important problems which dominated the field in the past. In the late twentieth century, the philosophy of physics was largely focused on orthodox Quantum Mechanics and Relativity Theory. The measurement problem, the question of the possibility of hidden variables, and the nature of quantum locality dominated the literature on quantum mechanics, whereas questions about relationalism vs. substantivalism, and issues about underdetermination of theories, dominated the literature on spacetime. These issues still receive considerable attention from philosophers, but many have shifted their attention to other questions related to quantum mechanics and to spacetime theories. Quantum field theory has become a major focus, particularly from the point of view of algebraic foundations. Concurrent with these trends, there has been a focus on understanding gauge invariance and symmetries. The philosophy of physics has evolved even further in recent years, with attention being paid to theories that, for the most part, were largely ignored in the past. For example, the relationship between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics—once thought to be a paradigmic instance of unproblematic theory reduction—is now a hotly debated topic. The implicit, and sometimes explicit, reductionist methodology of both philosophers and physicists has been severely criticized, and attention has now turned to the explanatory and descriptive roles of “non-fundamental,” phenomenological theories. This shift of attention includes “old” theories such as classical mechanics, once deemed to be of little philosophical interest. Furthermore, some philosophers have become more interested in “less fundamental” contemporary physics such as condensed matter theory. Questions abound with implications for the nature of models, idealizations, and explanation in physics.
Christopher Shields (ed.)
This book reflects the lively international character of Aristotelian studies, drawing contributors from across the globe, and including a preponderance of authors from the University of Oxford, which has been a center of Aristotelian studies for many centuries. It explores the broad range of activity Aristotelian studies comprise today, including the primarily textual and philological to the application of broadly Aristotelian themes to contemporary problems irrespective of their narrow textual fidelity. In between these extremes one finds the core of Aristotelian scholarship as it is practiced today, and as it is primarily represented in this volume: textual exegesis and criticism. Even within this more limited core activity, one witnesses a rich range of pursuits, with some scholars seeking primarily to understand Aristotle in his own philosophical milieu and others seeking rather to place him into direct conversation with contemporary philosophers and their present-day concerns. The book, prefaced with an introduction to Aristotle's life and works by the editor, covers the main areas of Aristotelian philosophy and intellectual enquiry: ethics, metaphysics, politics, logic, language, psychology, rhetoric, poetics, theology, physical and biological investigation, and philosophical method. It also looks both backwards and forwards: two articles recount Aristotle's treatment of earlier philosophers, who proved formative to his own orientations and methods, and another three chart the long afterlife of Aristotle's philosophy: in Late Antiquity, in the Islamic World, and in the Latin West.
Ben Bradley, Fred Feldman, and Jens Johansson (eds)
Death has long been a preoccupation of philosophers, and this is especially so today. The Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Death contains chapters that cover current philosophical thinking of death-related topics across the entire range of the discipline. These include metaphysical topics—such as the nature of death, the possibility of an afterlife, the nature of persons, and how our thinking about time affects what we think about death—as well as axiological topics, such as whether death is bad for its victim, what makes it bad to die, what attitude it is fitting to take toward death, the possibility of posthumous harm, and the desirability of immortality. The chapters also explore the views of ancient philosophers such as Aristotle, Plato, and Epicurus on topics related to the philosophy of death, and questions in normative ethics, such as what makes killing wrong when it is wrong, and whether it is wrong to kill fetuses, non-human animals, combatants in war, and convicted murderers.
Harold Kincaid (ed.)
The philosophy of the social sciences considers the underlying explanatory powers of the social (or human) sciences, such as history, economics, anthropology, politics, and sociology. The types of question covered include the methodological (the nature of observations, laws, theories, and explanations) to the ontological—whether or not these sciences can explain human nature in a way consistent with common-sense beliefs. This publication is a major, comprehensive look at the key ideas in the field, guided by several principles. The first is that the philosophy of social science should be closely connected to, and informed by, developments in the sciences themselves. The second is that the volume should appeal to practicing social scientists as well as philosophers, with the contributors being drawn from both ranks, and speaking to on-going controversial issues in the field. Finally, the volume promotes connections across the social sciences, with greater internal discussion and interaction across disciplinary boundaries. It is split into five sections: mechanisms, explanation, and causation; evidence; norms, culture, and the social-psychological; sociology of knowledge; normative connections.
Michael Beaney (ed.)
Analytic philosophy is now generally seen as the dominant philosophical tradition in the English-speaking world, and has been so from at least the middle of the twentieth century. Over the last two decades, its influence has also been steadily growing in the non-English-speaking world. One sign of this is the proliferation of societies for analytic philosophy around the world. Analytic philosophy now encompasses a far wider range of approaches, ideas, and positions than it ever did in its early days. From its original concern with epistemological and metaphysical questions in the philosophy of logic and mathematics (in the case of Gottlob Frege and Bertrand Russell) and in ethics and the theory of judgement (in the case of G. E. Moore), it has ramified—via the linguistic turn (taken first by Ludwig Wittgenstein)—into all spheres of philosophy. This book provides a picture of analytic philosophy and its historiography. It contains chapters that address a wide range of topics in analytic philosophy, from logical positivism to Russell’s theory of descriptions and the idea of logical construction, to Bernard Bolzano’s anti-Kantianism, rigorous experience, meta-ethics, normative ethics, metaphysics, analytic aesthetics, pragmatism, the linguistic turn in analytic philosophy, skepticism and knowledge, Oxford realism, phenomenology, inferentialism and normativity, and developments in logic. The book examines the views of some of the leading philosophers of their time, including Russell, Frege, Moore, Wittgenstein, Bolzano, Carnap, Quine, and Anscombe.
James A. Harris (ed.)
This book examines British philosophy in an eighteenth-century context. It looks at the theories of John Locke that mattered most to philosophers of the period, along with Isaac Newton's complex and contested legacy. It also discusses a number of different interpretations of what a ‘scientific approach’ to human nature might look like and shows that the idea of a science of man goes beyond Lockeanism and Newtonianism. Moreover, the book explores important contributions to the theory of perception and addresses the question of how sensory experience served to stock the mind with ideas, focusing on George Berkeley and Thomas Reid and their arguments against the simple representationalism apparently expounded by Locke. There is also a discussion on the relation between the passions and other important faculties of the mind, such as the faculties of reason, will, and taste. The book shows that the philosophy of eighteenth-century politics was a very wide-ranging business, encompassing topics such as the origins of civil society, the British constitution, political economy, and religion and the rationality of belief in revelation.