Peter Gouzouasis and Danny Bakan
This chapter, written creatively as a scripted conversation between a professor and a doctoral student, asks how researchers might study music-making in a plethora of community music settings using arts-based methods. On the surface, arts-based educational research (ABER), art-based research (ABR), creative analytical practices (CAP), and arts inquiry (AI), may seem one and the same, but there are distinctive historical and theoretical nuances between them. We crafted this composition in a reflexive manner with theory and research embedded in the scripted conversation to explore these nuances. We point towards the conclusion that music communities, where participants are actively engaged, are well suited to inquiry through methods that include creative ways of representing and understanding both music and learning. In a conversational way, we explore distinctions, contexts, possibilities, problems, and the power of engaging arts-based research in the study of community music-making.
Dave Camlin and Katherine Zesersen
In this chapter, we outline an approach to training in community music that is congruent with its pluralistic and diverse character. From the situated perspective of Sage Gateshead, a large music organization in the north of the United Kingdom, we reflect on some of the ways that musicians have developed the skills, knowledge, and attitudes to become effective practitioners of community music. Rooted in a dialogic and democratic pedagogy, the training processes described herein recognize the highly individualized nature of community music practices, and are underpinned by the explicitly humanistic values and attitudes that unite them.
Lee Willingham and Glen Carruthers
The establishment of community music courses and degree programs in universities gives rise to discourse about the fundamental principles of community music. Can community music flourish in the complexity of academia, where disciplines are regulated, researched, and examined systematically? This chapter will argue that community music principles are synergistic with higher education goals, and, in fact, traditional music education has much to learn and gain from community music practices. How can schools of music be more civic minded, community friendly, and enhance the cultural life of the regions they serve? How can rigour exist (artistic and scholarly) in a culture of empathy, inclusivity, and hospitality where nonformal pedagogies are practiced, and where intergenerational and lifelong learning—along with activism, health, and wholeness—are foundational? These questions are addressed and measured against a tradition where audition standards and progression pathways are becoming increasingly multivalent.
Gillian Howell, Lee Higgins, and Brydie-Leigh Bartleet
Many people have become disengaged from music making owing to the commercialization and commodification of music practices. This chapter examines a distinctive response to that disengagement, through the work of community music facilitators, who connect on interpersonal and musical levels to encourage community music practice. Four case studies are used to illustrate the central notions of this approach. Underpinning these four case studies is the concept of musical excellence in community music interventions. This notion of excellence refers to the quality of the social experience—bonds formed, meaning and enjoyment derived, and sense of agency that emerges for individuals and the group—alongside the musical outcomes created through the music making experience. The chapter concludes by considering the ways in which community music opens up new pathways for reflecting on, enacting, and developing approaches that respond to a wide range of social, cultural, health, economic, and political contexts.
Although music-dance making would seem, intuitively, to be part of leisure studies, music and dance very seldom appear beyond the simple form of “activity” and rarely as music-dance making. Many Indigenous peoples conceptualize music-dance making as essential to life, knowledge, and taking care of the earth and cosmos. Seeking insight and wisdom from Indigenous practices and words, this chapter enacts maieutic listening to engage with Indigenous music-dance making that has sustained and nourished Indigenous Kanaka Maoli, Kanaka ‘Ōiwi, and Diné peoples for generations. The aim of the discussion is to gesture to social and political insights that can emerge through dialogue between Indigenous music-dance making and knowledge systems and Western leisure: a dialogue that unprivileges Western leisure. As Indigenous initiatives related to sovereignty, self-determination, and concern for the earth crisscross the world, the presence, power, and survivance of Indigenous music-dance making, as an integral component challenges, enriches, or changes how leisure is imagined and practiced.
Alexis A. Kallio and Lauri Vakeva
This chapter surveys the history of popular music education in Nordic countries and explores scenarios for possible interpretations, resulting in a rich and informed critique of the field. The chapter offers a comparative overview of approaches to popular music education in the Nordic countries, focusing on the rationales for including popular music in the curriculum. A dominant rationale has been that popular music has unique democratic potentials. The analysis brings nuance to the situation, arguing that popular music genres “are not necessarily democratic in and of themselves.” Popular music education policies can, in fact, be instruments of social exclusion.
Charles Keil enjoyed a long and illustrious self-styled career as an activist, musician, educator, and “applied sociomusicologist.” His many investigations included urban blues music, the Tiv people of Africa, polka musicians in Buffalo, and Balkan musicians in Greece. His work has focused on groove and participation, as a response to what he sees as a corrupt and overrationalized Western culture. In this unconventional “open letter” format, the author explores the richness of Keil’s life and work, encouraged by his call for vibrant, vernacular, participatory, nonmediated musics that nurture spontaneity, and by his call for music learning inspired by paideia and groove. The chapter finds excitement in the implications Keil’s practice might hold for music learning and teaching, participatory music making, and for conceptualizing all education as “leisure education.”
Patricia Shehan Campbell and Shannon Dudley
Working from the premise that the study of music in a hermetic academic environment is no longer a viable model, and that university music programmes must connect to the vibrant musical communities in the very neighbourhoods that surround them, we examine how the presence of a community music ‘weave’ within university programmes of music benefits students, faculty, and community members in myriad ways. We offer examples of university–community partnerships initiated by the ethnomusicology and music education programmes at the University of Washington that prepare music students for the diverse and complex society into which they will graduate. The Visiting Artists in Ethnomusicology programme will be highlighted for the extent to which world-renowned and locally residing artist-musicians have been invited to the faculty for extended periods to perform, teach, and interact with students on instruments, vocally, and in dance forms associated with traditional musical practices. The intent of the chapter is to underscore the critical need for university–community exchanges, to suggest some ways that such exchanges can be accommodated within university programmes of music, and to affirm the benefits that flow from connecting the dots of musicians and aspiring musicians in the workaday world beyond the fortress of the university.