Bo Feng and Hairong Feng
This chapter reviews existing research related to understanding the influence of culture on advice communication. Key theoretical frameworks and constructs that have been used to guide the study of advice and culture are reviewed, as are major patterns of findings about cultural similarities and differences in advice seeking, provision, and responses. Pragmatic implications for communication of advice in intercultural contexts are discussed as well. Attention is also given to challenges of researching advice across cultures, as well as to limitations of existing theories that have informed or developed out of this body of research. Directions for future research are suggested.
Erina L. MacGeorge and Lyn M. Van Swol
Advice has been studied in many different academic disciplines, such as communication, psychology, business, sociology, education, and public health. These disciplines examine advice across diverse personal and professional relationships, in a broad range of contexts, and as exchanged across the multiple media we use to communicate. However, scholars from diverse fields are often unaware of research on advice outside their home domains. This introductory chapter examines ways advice has been conceptualized and operationalized across disciplines. It also offers analyses of prototypical advice and its principal functions. Finally, it provides overviews of the other chapters in the Handbook, highlighting key intellectual contributions made by the authors.
Bo Feng, Xun Zhu, and Yining Zhou Malloch
This chapter focuses on advice communication in cyberspace. It discusses the relatively unique characteristics of advice seeking, provision, and reception via the Internet, using advice communication in traditional one-on-one, face-to-face, and personal relationship settings as a reference. Major theoretical frameworks that have informed the existing research on online advice, key research questions, and findings are reviewed. This chapter offers practical suggestions on effective advice communication online. It also discusses opportunities for future research in this area.
Jonathan D’Angelo and Anne-Lise D'Angelo
This chapter reviews the research and theory related to advice in health contexts. The focus is on interpersonal advice offered face-to-face or by phone from health professionals to laypeople. The first part of the chapter discusses who gives advice to whom and who seeks advice. Next, three elements that impact advice efficacy and utilization are considered: source factors, message factors, and receiver factors. The chapter then discusses the development and application of theories of advice in health contexts and identifies areas for future research. Finally, the chapter offers guidelines for those professionals in a position to provide health advice.
Changmin Duan, Sarah Knox, and Clara E. Hill
Advice giving in psychotherapy has been an area of interest for theorists and practitioners for a long time. However, clear and distinct answers to questions concerning the role of advice in client outcomes have not been as available as one would expect. This state of art may be related to discrepant theoretical positions and the lack of consistent empirical evidence. This chapter argues that some evidence does support advice giving in psychotherapy, depending on the cultural and social context as well as on client and therapist variables. This chapter reviews the literature, recommends a specific model for advice giving, and outlines future research directions.
Hansun Zhang Waring and Gahye Song
This chapter considers how advising has been researched in a range of educational settings, including academic (educational) counseling, professional supervision, peer tutoring, and parent-teacher conferences. Working with data collected from naturally occurring interaction and drawing upon a wide variety of analytical approaches, scholars of educational advising have offered important insights into how advice is given and received as well as the various issues and challenges featured in the advising encounter. These issues and challenges include tensions between clarity and politeness, development and assessment, and guidance and autonomy. The chapter concludes by considering the practical implications of the research so far and suggesting future directions for scholarship in educational advising.
Cassandra Carlson Hill
This chapter examines what is known and what requires further exploration in research on advice in family communication. Research about advice in families is largely drawn from human development, family therapy, and psychology, with only a few studies grounded in theories of advice and family communication. This chapter provides a synthetic review of this research, emphasizing who provides advice and how it functions across different types of familial relationships. The chapter also highlights relevant theoretical frameworks, including advice response theory, the integrated model of advice, and family systems theory. Finally, the chapter offers guidance specifically relevant to family members giving and receiving advice.
This chapter explores the nature of governmental policy advice, the roles and methods of governmental advisors, and the range of relationships that may exist between advisors and their clients. Three models of the advisor-client relationship are identified. Model I is the advisor as director, wherein the advisor tends to take control of the advising process, directing the client to take actions to achieve success in governance and policy making. Model II is the advisor as servant, in which the advisor merely responds to the demands of the client for help and guidance in a specific governmental task. Model III is the advisor as partner, wherein the advisor and the government official jointly manage and take co-ownership of the problem to be solved. Factors that lead to the adoption each of these models, the various advising styles that advisors employ, and their differing effects on the policy-making process are also explored.
Sara Branch and Elizabeth Dorrance Hall
Friendships and romantic relationships are characterized by enduring concern for each other’s welfare. It is perhaps not surprising, then, that advice, a form of social support, is common, expected, and even desired in intimate relationships. While much of the research on advice samples from friendships and romantic relationships, the influence of the specific relational context is often overlooked. This chapter addresses this limitation with a synthesis of theory and research from relationship science. Specifically, it explores the potential contributions of interdependence theory (Kelley & Thibaut, 1978), relationship turbulence theory (Solomon, Knobloch, Theiss, & McLaren, 2016), attachment theory (Bowlby, 1969), and confirmation theory (Dailey, 2006) to understand how relationship cognitions affect advice outcomes. The chapter also discusses the intersections between these theories as applied to advice and shows how these theories can guide best practices of advising in close relationships.
Do-Yeong Kim and Sujin Son
This chapter advances understanding of the advice-taking behavior of protégés during the mentoring process in organizations. First, it reviews the extant literature regarding mentoring relationships in general. Next, it examines the possible key factors that influence protégés’ advice-taking behavior in mentoring relationships. Finally, it discusses directions for future research. Possible key factors influencing protégés’ advice-taking behavior in mentoring relationships are suggested, including mentor characteristics (mentor status and learning-goal orientation), protégé characteristics (cultural orientation and learning goal-orientation), and relational characteristics (relationship quality and trust in mentors).