Bo Feng and Hairong Feng
This chapter reviews existing research related to understanding the influence of culture on advice communication. Key theoretical frameworks and constructs that have been used to guide the study of advice and culture are reviewed, as are major patterns of findings about cultural similarities and differences in advice seeking, provision, and responses. Pragmatic implications for communication of advice in intercultural contexts are discussed as well. Attention is also given to challenges of researching advice across cultures, as well as to limitations of existing theories that have informed or developed out of this body of research. Directions for future research are suggested.
Erina L. MacGeorge and Lyn M. Van Swol
Advice has been studied in many different academic disciplines, such as communication, psychology, business, sociology, education, and public health. These disciplines examine advice across diverse personal and professional relationships, in a broad range of contexts, and as exchanged across the multiple media we use to communicate. However, scholars from diverse fields are often unaware of research on advice outside their home domains. This introductory chapter examines ways advice has been conceptualized and operationalized across disciplines. It also offers analyses of prototypical advice and its principal functions. Finally, it provides overviews of the other chapters in the Handbook, highlighting key intellectual contributions made by the authors.
Bo Feng, Xun Zhu, and Yining Zhou Malloch
This chapter focuses on advice communication in cyberspace. It discusses the relatively unique characteristics of advice seeking, provision, and reception via the Internet, using advice communication in traditional one-on-one, face-to-face, and personal relationship settings as a reference. Major theoretical frameworks that have informed the existing research on online advice, key research questions, and findings are reviewed. This chapter offers practical suggestions on effective advice communication online. It also discusses opportunities for future research in this area.
Jonathan D’Angelo and Anne-Lise D'Angelo
This chapter reviews the research and theory related to advice in health contexts. The focus is on interpersonal advice offered face-to-face or by phone from health professionals to laypeople. The first part of the chapter discusses who gives advice to whom and who seeks advice. Next, three elements that impact advice efficacy and utilization are considered: source factors, message factors, and receiver factors. The chapter then discusses the development and application of theories of advice in health contexts and identifies areas for future research. Finally, the chapter offers guidelines for those professionals in a position to provide health advice.
Changmin Duan, Sarah Knox, and Clara E. Hill
Advice giving in psychotherapy has been an area of interest for theorists and practitioners for a long time. However, clear and distinct answers to questions concerning the role of advice in client outcomes have not been as available as one would expect. This state of art may be related to discrepant theoretical positions and the lack of consistent empirical evidence. This chapter argues that some evidence does support advice giving in psychotherapy, depending on the cultural and social context as well as on client and therapist variables. This chapter reviews the literature, recommends a specific model for advice giving, and outlines future research directions.
Hansun Waring and Gahye Song
This chapter considers how advising has been researched in a range of educational settings, including academic (educational) counseling, professional supervision, peer tutoring, and parent-teacher conferences. Working with data collected from naturally occurring interaction and drawing upon a wide variety of analytical approaches, scholars of educational advising have offered important insights into how advice is given and received as well as the various issues and challenges featured in the advising encounter. These issues and challenges include tensions between clarity and politeness, development and assessment, and guidance and autonomy. The chapter concludes by considering the practical implications of the research so far and suggesting future directions for scholarship in educational advising.
Do-Yeong Kim and Sujin Son
This chapter advances understanding of the advice-taking behavior of protégés during the mentoring process in organizations. First, it reviews the extant literature regarding mentoring relationships in general. Next, it examines the possible key factors that influence protégés’ advice-taking behavior in mentoring relationships. Finally, it discusses directions for future research. Possible key factors influencing protégés’ advice-taking behavior in mentoring relationships are suggested, including mentor characteristics (mentor status and learning-goal orientation), protégé characteristics (cultural orientation and learning goal-orientation), and relational characteristics (relationship quality and trust in mentors).
Two bodies of research focus on advice messages and interactions. Conversation analysts provide detailed descriptions of advice messages and interaction sequences in naturally occurring interactions. Supportive communication scholars theorize how advice message features influence recipients’ emotional, problem solving, and relational outcomes. The two research paradigms differ, and although both contribute to an understanding of advice messages and interactions, they remain relatively unintegrated. This chapter reviews major findings from each paradigm. To demonstrate the potential for integration, two research programs that incorporate conversation analytic findings into theorizing about supportive communication are reviewed. The chapter concludes by proposing how to further extend theorizing about advice as supportive communication by integrating conversation analytic insights.
Lyn M. Van Swol, Jihyun Esther Paik, and Andrew Prahl
This chapter examines the psychology of advice recipients, focusing on research predominantly conducted using the Judge Advisor System, in which a participant “judge” receives advice from one or more advisors but has ultimate responsibility for making the decision. First, it reviews methods of typical Judge Advisor System experiments. Next, it surveys the research to explore why decision makers often do not seek out advice, focusing on the costs of advice and decision-maker overconfidence. It then examines why decision makers underutilize the advice they receive due to factors like confirmation bias, egocentric discounting, and power. In addition, factors that increase the utilization of advice, such as trust, advisor confidence, and advisor expertise, are considered. Finally, the influence of advice-recipient power and reception to computerized advice are examined in depth. Finally, advice to decision makers about how to seek and utilize advice to make better decisions is provided.
Erina L. MacGeorge and Lyn M. Van Swol
This chapter highlights cross-cutting themes from the research reviewed in this Handbook. Areas for theoretical integration across contexts and levels of analysis are also suggested. In addition, it summarizes the variety of methods used to study advice and makes suggestions for methodological synthesis and advancement. Finally, some of the best practices for giving advice offered by the other chapters in this volume are synthesized. The chapter concludes with reflections on the relationship between theory and application.