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The Construction of Gender in the New Testament  

Colleen M. Conway

Print publication date:
Nov 2014
Online publication date:
Apr 2014
This chapter begins with a brief overview of the theorists who have shaped gender analytical work on the New Testament, especially the application of gender theory in classical studies. It ... More

Israel from the Rise of Hellenisim to 70 ce  

Lester L. Grabbe

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses Jewish history from the rise of Hellenism to 70 CE. The Hellenistic and Roman periods belong to what is often referred to as the ‘Second Temple period’ – a ... More

Israel to the End of the Persian Period: History, Social, Political, and Economic background  

J. W. Rogerson

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article discusses the social, political, and economic background of Israel to the end of the Persian period, based upon extra-biblical texts, archaeological discoveries, and ... More

The Life and Teaching of Jesus and the Rise of Christianity  

Craig A. Evans

Print publication date:
Feb 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
This article reviews studies on the life and teaching of Jesus and the rise of Christianity. The beginning of critical research into the life of Jesus is traditionally traced to the ... More

Manichaeism  

Samuel N. C. Lieu

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Of all the heresies that threatened the unity of the early church, the followers of Mani occupied an exceptional position, as they were devotees not of Jesus but first and foremost of a ... More

Martyrdom and the Cult of the Saints  

Richard M. Price

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
It is a mistake to suppose that the scientific history of the Christian church, worthy of continuing use, started only a few decades ago. Arguably, the best work with which to begin a ... More

Monasticism  

William Harmless

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
Christianity had ascetic commitments from its very foundation, in the words and deeds both of Jesus and of Paul. When it surfaced into legitimacy in the 310s, Christianity's deep-seated ... More

Pagans and Christians  

Michele R. Salzman

Print publication date:
Sep 2008
Online publication date:
Sep 2009
As Christianity ‘triumphed’ over the course of the fourth century, so too did Christians' growing intolerance for pagans, and also Jews and ‘heretical Christians’. In the traditional ... More

The Role of the Apostles  

Richard Pervo

Print publication date:
Aug 2015
Online publication date:
Feb 2016
The roles played by the figures of the apostles in Christian Apocrypha may be viewed from a number of different perspectives; these include aspects of theology, sociology, and literature. ... More

Same-Sex Relations in the Biblical World  

Theodore W. Jennings Jr.

Print publication date:
Nov 2014
Online publication date:
Mar 2014
While the Bible is often understood to forbid same-sex love, a closer examination reveals a wide variety of forms of same-sex love that are presupposed and even celebrated in these texts. ... More

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