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date: 23 March 2019

Abstract and Keywords

This essay discusses the role of non-English languages in the United States and how they have been transformed. The rise and fall of the German language and the ascendancy of the Spanish language reveals the nuances of language retention among the country at large and among the foreign-stock population. Reactions to non-English speech have included the “English Only” and “English Official” movements, which oppose any extensive use of non-English languages. Also discussed are aspects of bilingualism in the United States.

Keywords: U.S. language retention, English Only, non-English languages, bilingualism, multilingualism German, Spanish

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