Abstract and Keywords
This article deals with the fundamentals of colloid science, with particular emphasis on the interplay of energy and entropy factors in forming colloidal suspensions. It first considers when a colloidal suspension changes from a liquid at low colloid concentration to various equilibrium, along with metastable (including kinetically arrested) structures at higher concentrations. active driven matter and the selectivity of binding in protein-based colloids. It then discusses a number of key ideas and some recent developments in colloid physics by focusing on the work of Albert Einstein and Jean Perrin. It also explores the physics of entropy, how the liquid state is formed, strategies for tuning colloidal interactions, kinetic arrest and glass transition, and mode coupling theory. Finally, it describes gelation, colloid rheology, concentration effects in colloidal fluids, the rheology of solids, and proteins as ‘a mysterious sort of colloids’.
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