- The Oxford Handbook of Skills and Training
- List of Contributors
- Introduction: Skills and Training: Multiple Targets, Shifting Terrain
- Disciplinary Perspectives on Skill
- Skill Builders and the Evolution of National Vocational Training Systems
- The Changing Meaning of Skill: Still Contested, Still Important
- A New Social Construction of Skill
- Measuring Job Content: Skills, Technology, and Management Practices
- Accreditation and Assessment in Vocational Education and Training
- Education and Qualifications as Skills
- Pre-Employment Skill Formation in Australia and Germany
- Skill Development in Middle-level Occupations: The Role of Apprenticeship Training
- What Is Expected of Higher Education Graduates in the Twenty-first Century?
- Employer-Led In-Work Training and Skill Formation: The Challenges of Multi-Varied and Contingent Phenomena
- Unions, the Skills Agenda, and Workforce Development
- A Working Lifetime of Skill and Training Needs
- Skill Under-utilization
- Business Strategies and Skills
- Measuring Skills Stock, Job Skills, and Skills Mismatch
- The Individual Benefits of Investing in Skills
- The Economic and Social Benefits of Skills
- Theorizing Skill Formation in the Global Economy
- Different National Skill Systems
- Skill Ecosystems
- Employment Systems, Skills, and Knowledge
- Skill Demands and Developments in the Advanced Economies
- Approaches to Skills in the Asian Developmental States
- Emerging Economic Powers: The Transformation of the Skills Systems in China and India
- Projecting the Impact of Information Technology on Work and Skills in the 2030s
- International Skill Flows and Migration
- Professional Skills: Impact of Comparative Political Economy
- Skills and Training for the Older Population: Training the New Work Generation
- Rethinking Skills Development: Moving Beyond Competency-Based Training
- Who Pays for Skills?: Differing Perspectives on Who Should Pay and Why
- Current Challenges: Policy Lessons and Implications
- Author Index
Abstract and Keywords
This chapter considers patterns of skills demand and policy developments in the advanced economies. Determining the actual and anticipated skills demands of employers and individuals are key challenges for policy makers and an area of ongoing interest for academics. This chapter considers academic debates about skills demand, including whether upskilling or deskilling is taking place, as well as the increasing focus on ‘soft’ skills rather than traditional technical skills. This discussion is followed by data on trends and forecasting of skills development. How and where policy and practice positions are formulated are considered for both Coordinated Market Economies (CMEs) and Liberal Market Economies (LMEs), as well as the shifting policy positions and policy interventions. The chapter concludes with a commentary on these debates, trends and interventions.
Caroline Smith PhD is Deputy Chief Executive Officer, National Employment Services Association (Australia). Her career spans 18 years in employment, skills, and labour market research, and policy roles across government, academia, industry, and the not-for profit sector in Australia and the United Kingdom. Caroline has published a number of related articles and book chapters and was the 2012 Australian-American Fulbright Commission Professional Scholar in VET.
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