- The Oxford Handbook of Early Modern European History, 1350–1750
- List of Tables and Diagrams
- List of Maps
- List of Illustrations
- List of Contributors
- A Return to the Ancient World?
- Political Thought
- The Scientific Revolution
- Art and Architecture
- Europe’s Enlightenment
- Exploration and Navigation
- Iberian Empires
- Northern European Empire in Asia: The VOC
- Jesuit Missions
- Colonial Societies
- Trade and the Global Economy
- Asian Connections and Chinese Comparisons: The Unconquered East
- Monarchy in Western and Central Europe
- Monarchy in Northern and Eastern Europe
- Authority and Popular Resistance
- Royal Courts
- Taxation and State Debt
- Republics and Republicanism
- Warfare on Land
- European Naval Warfare
- The Ottoman Empire and Europe
- Europe’s Shifting Balance of Power
- The Emergence of Diplomacy
- Index of Names and Places
- Index of Subjects
Abstract and Keywords
From unpromising starting points in Atlantic-side Europe, during a period of plague and cold, in a region that was poor and, by comparison with civilizations of maritime Asia, technically backward, explorers worked out the wind-systems of the world, and opened routes of commerce, conquest, colonization, contagion, and cultural and ecological exchange between formerly sundered regions and continents. This chapter narrates their achievements and approaches the problems of how and why Europeans’ breakthrough to much of the rest of the world happened when it did. The emphasis is on explorers’ mental as well as material equipment, and on the environmental constraints and challenges that shaped their efforts.
Felipe Fernández-Armesto, Department of History, University of Notre Dame.
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