- Oxford Handbooks in Linguistics
- The Contributors
- Introduction, Papers in Laboratory Phonology I: Between the Grammar and Physics of Speech(Reprint)
- Conceptual Foundations of Phonology as a Laboratory Science (reprint)
- Nature and Types of Variation: Their Interpretation Within a Laboratory Phonology Perspective
- Speaker-Related Variation–Sociophonetic Factors
- Integrating Variation in Phonological Analysis: Variation: Where Laboratory and Theoretical Phonology Meet Modeling Phonological Variation
- Message-Related Variation: Segmental Within-Speaker Variation Tonal Variation
- System-Related Variation
- Multidimensional Representations of Knowledgeof Sound Structure
- Lexical Representations: Probing Underlying Representations Asymmetric Phonological Representations of Words in the Mental Lexicon The Lexicon: Not Just Elusive, But Illusory? The Dynamic Lexicon
- Phonological Elements: The Nature Of Distinctive Features and The Issue of Natural Classes Contrastive Tone and its Implementation Modeling Phonological Category Learning
- Organization of Phonological Elements: Articulatory Representation and Organization The Role of The Syllable Inthe Organization and Realization of Sound Systems The Temporal Implementation of Prosodic Structure
- Prosodic Representations: Prosodic Structure, Constituents, and Their Implementation Segment-To-Tone Association Tonal Alignment
- Phonological Representationsin Language Acquisition: Climbing The Ladder of Abstraction
- Changes In Representations: The Nature of Historical Change The Relationship Between Synchronic Variation and Diachronic Change Modeling Exemplar-Based Phonologization
- Integrating Different Perspectives: Insights From Production, Perception, and Acquisition
- Insights From Perception and Comprehension: How Perceptual and Cognitive Constraints Affect Learning of Speech Categories Representations of Speech Sound Patterns In The Speaker's Brain: Insights From Perception Studies
- Emergent Information-Level Coupling Between Perception and Production
- Insights From Acquisition and Learning: How Phonological Representations Develop During First-Language Acquisition Speech Processing In Bilingual and Multilingual Listeners Second-Language Speech Learning
- Methodologies and Resources
- Corpora, Databases, and Internet Resources: Corpus Phonology with Speech Resources Using The Internet For Collecting Phonological Data Speech Manipulation, Synthesis, and Automatic Recognition in Laboratory Phonology Phonotactic Patterns in Lexical Corpora
- Articulatory Analysis and Acoustic Modeling: Articulatory To Acoustic Modeling Ultrasound As a Tool For Speech Research Methodologies Used to Investigate Laryngeal Function and Aerodynamic Properties of Speech On The Acoustics and Aerodynamics of Fricatives
- Prosodic Analysis: Experimental Methods and Paradigms For Prosodic Analysis Data Collection For Prosodic Analysis of Continuous Speech and Dialectal Variation
- Encoding, Decoding, and Acquisition: Studying The Receptive Phonetic/Phonological System Experimental Methods and Designs To Investigate Phonological Encoding of Spoken Language Measuring Phonetic Perception In Adults Eye Movements As A Dependent Measure In Research On Spoken Language Neurophysiological Techniques In Laboratory Phonology
- Experimental Design and Data Collection: Socially Stratified Sampling in Laboratory-Based Phonological Experimentation Methods For Studying Spontaneous Speech Methods and Experimental Design For Studying Sociophonetic Variation
- Statistical Analyses: Statistics In Laboratory Phonology Mixed-Effects Models Clustering and Classification Methods
Abstract and Keywords
This article describes theory and research methods employed for articulatory, acoustic, and aerodynamic analysis of speech. One of the theories, dispersion-focalization theory (DFT), combines two ideas that include focalization and contrast maximization. Focalization is a property that emerges from acoustic model nomograms and refers to points where constriction placement results in formants being close to each other (focal points). The theory distinguishes between independent and non-independent secondary contrasts. Independent secondary contrasts are secondary contrasts that do not interact with the primary vowel contrasts, while non-independent contrasts are secondary contrasts that affect the primary ones. The principle of distinctive region model (DRM) is that different regions of the vocal tract have uniform acoustic behavior. The results of DRM are based on how formation and release of constrictions affect the formants at different locations within the vocal tract. The DRM theory of linguistic contrast is based on the pseudo-orthogonality of the discrete regions and on a dynamic articulatory-acoustic principle stating that segments are preferred, which allow for the least motion from one segment to another, while maximizing contrast. Ultrasound imaging is increasingly been used to address specifically phonological questions. The technology is also used to examine the status of excrescent schwas in various phonological environments.
Khalil Iskarous is a Research Scientist at Haskins Laboratories. His research fo-cuses on speech production and its relation to speech perception, dynamical the-ories of linguistic structure, effects of contrast and prosody on coarticulation, articulatory-acoustic relations, and speech development and maturation.
Lisa Davidson is Associate Professor of Linguistics at New York University. Her main areas of interest are cross-language speech production and perception, foreign language acquisition, articulatory phonology, and loanword phonetics and phonology.
Helen M. Hanson is Assistant Professor in Electrical and Computer Engineering, Union College, and Research Affiliate at MIT's Research Laboratory of Electronics. Her research addresses quantal and enhancement theory, the acoustics of developing speech, speech respiration and prosody, and speech synthesis.
Christine H. Shadle is Senior Research Scientist at Haskins Laboratories. Her research focuses on the acoustics and aeroacoustics of speech production, especially of fricative consonants; she has used and developed different methods of vocal-tract imaging and signal analysis.
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